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Day length control can effectively limit seed germination to favorable seasons, but this phenomenon has been studied in relatively few wild plants. I tested species from interior Alaska for day length control of germination under controlled conditions, and I also monitored germination phenology in natural habitats. Unstratified and cold-stratified seeds were germinated on short (13 h) and long (22 h) day length and in the dark at constant and alternating temperatures. On long day length, unstratified Ledum decumbens and Saxifraga tricuspidata seeds germinated from 5??C to 20??C, but on short day length few or no seeds germinated at 5??C and 10??C and germination was reduced at higher temperatures. Unstratified seeds...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: American Journal of Botany
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The effects of increased salinity on plant growth were examined in a greenhouse experiment with four species common to oligohaline marshes of the northern Gulf of Mexico: Eleocharis palustris, Panicum hemitomon, Sagittaria lancifolia, and Scirpus americanus. Effects of final salinity reached (6 or 12 g/L), salinity influx rate (3 d or 3 wk), and duration of exposure (1, 2, or 3 mo) were investigated. Sagittaria lancifolia was the first species to show visible signs of stress, with browning and curling of older leaf edges. The salt effect was delayed for 6-8 wk in P. hemitomon, but this species had the highest aboveground tissue mortality rate at 12 g/L as exposure continued. Final salt concentration affected all...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: American Journal of Botany
Theb ehavioro fpollen grainsw ithint he airspacea roundE phedrat rifurcais described.V ectoral analyses of pollen grains moving around stems and ovules indicate a complex pattern of directional and magnitudinal changes in trajectories that can be related to the geometries of surfaces that obstruct airflow. Pollen grains, passing around cylindrical stems oriented normal to the directiono f ambient airflow,a re deflectedi n circumrotatingn on-laminarf low-patterns. Stems tilted downwind deflect pollen grains into trajectories along leeward surfaces of stems. These trajectories travel acropetally in a spiraling pattern and may intersect airflow patterns created around and by ovules. Computer analyses of pollen motion...
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• Premise of study: Accurate demographic information about long-lived plant species is important for understanding responses to large-scale disturbances, including climate change. It is challenging to obtain these data from desert perennial plants because seedling establishment is exceptionally rare, and estimates of survival are lacking for their vulnerable early stages. Desert wildfires, urbanization, and climate change influence the persistence of the long-lived Yucca brevifolia. Quantitative demographic attributes are crucial for understanding how populations will respond to disturbances and where populations will recede or advance under future climate scenarios. • Methods: We measured survival in a cohort of...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: American Journal of Botany
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The objective of this work was to determine whether radial oxygen loss (ROL) from roots of Typha domingensis and Cladium jamaicense creates an internal oxygen deficiency or, conversely, indicates adequate internal aeration and leakage of excess oxygen to the rhizosphere. Methylene blue in agar was used to quantify oxygen leakage. Typha's roots had a higher porosity than Cladium's and responded to flooding treatment by increasing cortical air space, particularly near the root tips. A greater oxygen release, which occurred along the subapical root axis, and an increase in rhizosphere redox potential (Eh) over time were associated with the well-developed aerenchyma system in Typha. Typha roots, regardless of oxygen...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: American Journal of Botany
The anomalous secondary wood of Atriplex confertifolia stems consists of vascular strands of xylem, phloem, and parenchyma embedded in fiberous conjunctive tissue. The included parenchyma contains chloroplasts and is capable of photosynthesis, as measured by 14CO2 uptake by wood in the light. Published in American Journal of Botany, volume 61, issue 5, on pages 444 - 448, in 1974.
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When plants are subjected to leaf canopy shade in forest understories or from neighboring plants, they not only experience reduced light quantity, but light quality in lowered red:far red light (R:FR). Growth and other developmental responses of plants in reduced R:FR can vary and are not consistent across species. We compared how an invasive liana, Celastrus orbiculatus, and its closely related native congener, C. scandens, responded to changes in the R:FR under controlled, simulated understory conditions. We measured a suite of morphological and growth attributes under control, neutral shading, and low R:FR light treatments. Celastrus orbiculatus showed an increase in height, aboveground biomass, and total leaf...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: American Journal of Botany
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Premise of the Study: Climate warming is predicted to have far-reaching effects on the distribution of species, but those effects may depend on the flexibility of regenerating species in responding to climate gradients. We conducted a study to determine whether the variation in the response of seed banks to temperature varied across the latitudinal range of Taxodium distichum swamps in North America. Methods: The soil was collected in a long-term research network and heated experimentally to three current-day spring normal soil temperatures (average maximum daily spring normal soil temperatures during May in Illinois, Arkansas, and Louisiana, USA, respectively: 22°, 25°, and 29°C). A "normal" is the mean temperature...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: American Journal of Botany
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An assemblage of 46 fossil pollen and spore types is described from a core drilled through the middle Eocene Saramaguacan Formation, Camaguey Province, eastern Cuba. Many of the specimens represent unidentified or extinct taxa but several can be identified to family (Palmae, Bombacaceae, Gramineae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae) and some to genus (Pteris, Crudia, Lymingtonia?). The paleo-climate was warm-temperate to subtropical which is consistent with other floras in the region of comparable age and with the global paleotemperature curve. Older plate tectonic models show a variety of locations for proto-Cuba during Late Cretaceous and later times, including along the norther coast of South America. More recent models depict...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: American Journal of Botany
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• Premise of the study: A key question concerns the vulnerability of desert species adapted to harsh, variable climates to future climate change. Evaluating this requires coupling long-term demographic models with information on past and projected future climates. We investigated climatic drivers of population growth using a 22-yr demographic model for Pediocactus bradyi, an endangered cactus in northern Arizona. • Methods: We used a matrix model to calculate stochastic population growth rates (λs) and the relative influences of life-cycle transitions on population growth. Regression models linked population growth with climatic variability, while stochastic simulations were used to (1) understand how predicted...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: American Journal of Botany
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REMISE OF THE STUDY: Dispersal of parasitic Cuscuta species (dodders) worldwide has been assumed to be largely anthropomorphic because their seeds do not match any previously known dispersal syndrome and no natural dispersal vectors have been reliably documented. However, the genus has a subcosmopolitan distribution and recent phylogeographic results have indicated that at least18 historical cases of long-distance dispersal (LDD) have occurred during its evolution. The objective of this study is to report the first LDD biological vector for Cuscuta seeds. METHODS: Twelve northern pintails (Anas acuta) were collected from Suisun Marsh, California and the contents of their lowest part of the large intestine (rectum)...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: American Journal of Botany
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Premise of the study: Reconstruction of floristic patterns during the early diversification of angiosperms is impeded by the scarce fossil record, especially in tropical latitudes. Here we collected quantitative palynological data from a stratigraphic sequence in tropical South America to provide floristic and climatic insights into such tropical environments during the Early Cretaceous. Methods: We reconstructed the floristic composition of an Aptian-Albian tropical sequence from central Colombia using quantitative palynology (rarefied species richness and abundance) and used it to infer its predominant climatic conditions. Additionally, we compared our results with available quantitative data from three other...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: American Journal of Botany
The effects of inoculation with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on nonmycotrophic (plants which do not form a mycorrhizal association) colonizing annuals and on mycotrophic perennials were investigated in southwestern Wyoming. A subsoil containing no initial mycorrhizal inoculum was used, and seeds of the later successional perennials were planted. The annuals were removed from one-half of the sampling quadrats to test for the interaction of competition and mycorrhizae on the perennials. During the third and fourth years of succession, the density and percent cover of Salsola kali, the most abundant nonmycotrophic annual, decreased by one-half to one-third with inoculation. Mycorrhizal hyphae and spores were...
Since the initial discovery of double fertilization in angiosperms in 1898, a number of reports of double fertilization-like events in the genus Ephedra have appeared. Until recently, convincing documentation of double fertilization in Ephedra had not been presented. In Ephedra nevadensis, following entry of a single binucleate sperm cell into the egg cell, one sperm nucleus migrates in a chalazal direction to fuse with the egg nucleus. Contemporaneous with this first fertilization event, the ventral canal nucleus regularly migrates from its initially apical position within the egg cell to a more central position within the egg cytoplasm, where it fuses with a second sperm nucleus. Based on quantitative microspectrofluorometric...
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PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The future of long-lived stand-forming desert plants such as Yucca brevifolia (Joshua tree) has come into question in light of climate variation and landscape-scale disturbances such as wildfire. Understanding plant establishment dynamics is important for mitigating the impacts of disturbances and promoting revegetation. • METHODS: We placed Y. brevifolia seeds in shallow caches and manipulated granivore access, nurse shrub effects, and the season of cache placement to determine conditions for seed germination and seedling establishment. • KEY RESULTS: Greatest seedling emergence occurred during spring and summer, when increased soil moisture was accompanied by warm soil temperatures. Late...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: American Journal of Botany


map background search result map search result map Palynological composition of a Lower Cretaceous South American tropical sequence: Climatic implications and diversity comparisons with other latitudes. Palynological composition of a Lower Cretaceous South American tropical sequence: Climatic implications and diversity comparisons with other latitudes.