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Age-related differences in dominance ability and the effect of prior residence on age-related dominance were investigated in captive male dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemalis. To determine if adults and first-winter birdsnext term differed in their intrinsic dominance ability, pairs of adult and first-winter previous termbirdsnext term of equal body size and winning experience were established. Because plumage influences status, young previous termbirdsnext term were experimentally darkened to match their older cage-mates. Adult and first-winter males became dominant with equal frequency. Because of this result and the fact that adults are usually dominant in the field, the effect of prior residence on age-related dominance...
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We are in a golden age for the study of brood parasitism, judging from both the quantity and quality of recent scientific publications on cuckoos, cowbirds and parasitic finches by investigators working in Europe, the Americas, Africa and Asia. As Johnsgard (1997) remarks in his preface, the evolutionary, ecological, and behavioural questions posed by obligate brood parasites are among the most intriguing contemporary ornithological topics. Rothstein & Robinson (1998) explain that brood parasites make ideal subjects for testing the generality of models for the evolution of social and mating behaviour, foraging behaviour, spatial distribution, and vocal development, because the strategy of providing no parental care...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Animal Behaviour
Piñon jays (Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus) distinguished accurately between good and bad seeds of piñon pines (Pinus edulis). This was investigated in captives of three age groups: wild-caught adults, hand-reared yearlings, and hand-reared juveniles. All appeared to use visual, tactile (apparently weight) and auditory (‘bill-clicking’) cues. Discrimination improved with practice. Bad seeds weighted with lead shot caused only temporary confusion. Inexperienced piñon jays demonstrated an immediate preference for piñon seeds over other objects. Distinguishing good seeds from bad was learned. ‘Bill-clicking’ apparently is unlearned, as it appears in young birds in a variety of contexts. The relationship between...
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Sage grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus, in an isolated montane basin near Gunnison, Colorado differ in several morphological and behavioural traits from conspecifics studied in other areas of the species' range. Both sexes in Gunnison are smaller than sage grouse elsewhere, and males possess differences in feather morphology as well. The mating behaviour of male sage grouse in three populations was examined to determine whether male strut displays of Gunnison sage grouse were behaviourally distinct. Behavioural analyses revealed Gunnison males perform strut displays at a slower rate than males in the two other sage grouse populations sampled. In addition, Gunnison males' strut displays contain unique visual and...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Animal Behaviour
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Scent-marking was studied in wolves (Canis lupus) along 133 km of tracks in northern Minnesota during winters of 1975 to 1976 and 1976 to 1977 and in two captive packs and four captive pairs for various periods. Lone wolves, which possess neither mates nor territories, rarely marked by raised-leg urination and defaecated and urinated less along roads and trails, where territorial pairs and packs generally marked. Newly formed pairs marked the most, eventually decreasing their rates to those of established packs. Generally, wolves that scent-marked also bred, whereas non-marking wolves usually did not breed. Scent-marking apparently is important to the success of courtship in new pairs and to reproductive synchrony...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Animal Behaviour
Isolated male red-winged blackbirds develop abnormal songs. Some normal components are delivered with abnormal order and timing. Two males deafened at about 10 days of age develop highly abnormal songs, although they retain more structure than other early-deafened songbirds. In masking noise from 8 to 330 days, one individual sings like a deaf bird.next term With reduced periods of masking singing is more like that of intact previous termbirds.next term Playback of normal song results in imitation. Individual isolates are unselective in learning both conspecific and Baltimore oriole song. Grouped males are more selective. New songs are added in the second year. Improvisation is important in redwing song development...
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Anuran amphibians have provided an excellent system for the study of animal communication and sexual selection. Studies of female mate choice in anurans, however, have focused almost exclusively on the role of auditory signals. In this study, we examined the effect of both auditory and visual cues on female choice in the squirrel treefrog. Our experiments used a two-choice protocol in which we varied male vocalization properties, visual cues, or both, to assess female preferences for the different cues. Females discriminated against high-frequency calls and expressed a strong preference for calls that contained more energy per unit time (faster call rate). Females expressed a preference for the visual stimulus of...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Animal Behaviour
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Prebreeding habitat selection in birds can often be explained in part by habitat characteristics. However, females may also select habitats on the basis of fidelity to areas of previous reproductive success or use by conspecifics. The relative influences of sociobehavioural attributes versus habitat characteristics in habitat selection has been primarily investigated in songbirds, while less is known about how these factors affect habitat selection processes in migratory waterfowl. Animal resource selection models often exhibit much unexplained variation; spatial patterns driven by social and behavioural characteristics may account for some of this. We radiomarked female lesser scaup, Aythya affinis, in the southwestern...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Animal Behaviour
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Avian incubation attentiveness has important fitness consequences through its influence on the number and quality of hatched young and energetic costs imposed on parents. Nest attentiveness is highly variable across species and geographical regions. We reviewed the literature and found a worldwide pattern that nest attentiveness of passerines is generally lower in south temperate and tropical regions than in north temperate regions. We also conducted a food manipulation experiment to assess the extent to which nest attentiveness may reflect proximate responses versus an evolved behaviour. We used the karoo prinia, Prinia maculosa, in South Africa, which has very low nest attentiveness (???49%) compared with that...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Animal Behaviour
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We tested whether routes of raptors migrating over areas with homogeneous topography follow constant geomagnetic courses more or less closely than constant geographical courses. We analysed the routes taken over land of 45 individual raptors tracked by satellite-based radiotelemetry: 25 peregrine falcons, Falco peregrinus, on autumn migration between North and South America, and seven honey buzzards, Pernis apivorus, and 13 ospreys, Pandion haliaetus, on autumn migration between Europe and Africa. Overall, migration directions showed a better agreement with constant geographical than constant geomagnetic courses. Tracks deviated significantly from constant geomagnetic courses, but were not significantly different...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Animal Behaviour
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Despite their importance for understanding predator–prey interactions, factors that affect predator evasion behaviours of offspring of large ungulates are poorly understood. Our objective was to characterize the influence of selection and availability of escape cover and maternal presence on predator evasion by white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, fawns in the northern Great Plains, U.S.A. We observed 45 coyote, Canis latrans, chases of fawns, and we participated in 83 human chases of fawns during 2007–2009, of which, 19 and 42 chases, respectively, ended with capture of the fawn. Evasive techniques used by fawns were similar for human and coyote chases. Likelihood of a white-tailed deer fawn escaping capture,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Animal Behaviour
Vocalizations and associated behaviour of six mated pairs of captive pinon jays (Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus) were recorded under various conditions in an effort to understand functions of the calls. One vocalization, the near, was analysed for components that would allow for individual recognition by pinon jays. Fifteen vocalizations are recognized and most are described quantitatively. Much gradation occurs within and between calls, which may allow for a subtle and complex system of communication in this highly social species. Wild flocks of pinon jays also were observed to corroborate the conclusions reached. Published in Animal Behaviour, volume 25, issue 3, on pages 567 - 584, in 1977.
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This DNA fingerprinting study investigates whether females of the brood parasite brown-headed cowbird, Molothrus ater, associate with their own juvenile offspring at feeding sites more often than would be expected by chance. Cowbirds lay their eggs in the nests of a variety of host species and, as far as is known, leave them to the care of foster parents. Using baited walk-in funnel traps, 36 adult female-juvenile pairs (or trios) of cowbirds were trapped. Blood samples were collected from these individuals to conduct DNA fingerprinting analyses, calculate similarity indices, and to compare S-values for the 11 comparisons of juveniles and the females with which they were caught with S-values of random pairings of...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Animal Behaviour
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Previous investigations have demonstrated the importance of predator diet in chemically mediated antipredator behaviour. However, there are few data on responses to life-stage-specific predator diets, which could be important for animals like amphibians that undergo metamorphosis and must respond to different suites of predators at different life-history stages. In laboratory choice tests, we investigated the chemically mediated avoidance response of juvenile western toads, Bufo boreas, to four different chemical stimuli: (1) live conspecific juveniles; (2) live earthworms; (3) snakes fed juvenile conspecifics; and (4) snakes fed larval conspecifics (tadpoles). Juvenile toads avoided chemical cues from snakes that...
The impact of sex and age on the nature of dominance hierarchies in black-billed magpies. Pica pica, was investigated. Dominance hierarchies were looked for in 11 unisexual groups each with 10 captive magpies, and 32 mixed-sex groups each with five captive magpies. Strongly linear hierarchies were found in all nine unisexual groups of 10 males. Of the two groups of 10 females observed, one was not linear and the other only marginally so. The occurrence of dominance reversals was 25 times greater in female than in male groups. The difference in dominance relationships between the sexes is discussed in relation to differences in the roles that the two sexes play in the breeding biology of magpies. In all 32 groups...
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The importance of social attraction in the formation of foraging groups was examined for a stream-dwelling cyprinid, the rosyside dace, Clinostomus funduloides. Dace arrivals and departures at natural foraging sites were monitored and tested for (1) tendency of dace to travel in groups, and (2) dependency of arrival and departure rates on group size. Dace usually entered and departed foraging sites independently of each other. Group size usually affected neither arrival rate nor departure probability. Thus, attraction among dace appeared weak; foraging groups most often resulted from dace aggregating in preferred foraging sites. The strongest evidence of social attraction was during autumn, when dace departure probability...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Animal Behaviour
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We tested whether routes of raptors migrating over areas with homogeneous topography follow constant geomagnetic courses more or less closely than constant geographical courses. We analysed the routes taken over land of 45 individual raptors tracked by satellite-based radiotelemetry: 25 peregrine falcons, Falco peregrinus, on autumn migration between North and South America, and seven honey buzzards, Pernis apivorus, and 13 ospreys, Pandion haliaetus, on autumn migration between Europe and Africa. Overall, migration directions showed a better agreement with constant geographical than constant geomagnetic courses. Tracks deviated significantly from constant geomagnetic courses, but were not significantly different...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Animal Behaviour


map background search result map search result map Juvenile western toads, Bufo boreas, avoid chemical cues of snakes fed juvenile, but not larval, conspecifics Behavioural cues surpass habitat factors in explaining prebreeding resource selection by a migratory diving duck Behavioural cues surpass habitat factors in explaining prebreeding resource selection by a migratory diving duck Juvenile western toads, Bufo boreas, avoid chemical cues of snakes fed juvenile, but not larval, conspecifics