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The concentration and distribution of inorganic Hg was measured using cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry in samples collected at selected sites on the Sacramento River from below Shasta Dam to Freeport, CA, at six separate times between 1996 and 1997. Dissolved (ultrafiltered, 0.005 μm equivalent pore size) Hg concentrations remained relatively constant throughout the system, ranging from the detection limit (< 0.4 ng/L) to 2.4 ng/L. Total Hg (dissolved plus colloidal suspended sediment) concentrations ranged from the detection limit at the site below Shasta Dam in September 1996 to 81 ng/L at the Colusa site in January 1997, demonstrating that colloidal sediment plays an important role in the downriver...
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This is the first part of a study that evaluates the influence of nonpoint-source contaminants on the sediment quality of five streams within the metropolitan Kansas City area, central United States. Surficial sediment was collected in 2003 from 29 sites along five streams with watersheds that extend from the core of the metropolitan area to its development fringe. Sediment was analyzed for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 3 common polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures (Aroclors), and 25 pesticide-related compounds of eight chemical classes. Multiple PAHs were detected at more than 50% of the sites, and concentrations of total PAHs ranged from 290 to 82,150 μg/kg (dry weight). The concentration and frequency...
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A two compartment pharmacokinetic model was developed which describes the uptake and elimination of 5,5',6-trichlorobiphenyl (TCB) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) in the midge, Chironomus riparius. C. riparius were exposed to nominal TCB (2 ??g L-1) and PCP (9 ??g L-1) concentrations during a 16 h static uptake phase. Depuration was determined over approximately 45 h using a flowthrough system without feeding. The uptake clearance (P) was 330 ?? 61 ml g-1 midge h-1 for TCB and 55 ?? 4 ml g-1 midge h-1 for PCP, while measured bioconcentration factors (BCF) were 35,900 and 458 for TCB and PCP, respectively. Overall, the clearance-volume- based pharmacokinetic model predicted BCF values that were consistent with published...
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Four measures of behavior-spontaneous swimming activity, swimming capacity, feeding behavior, and vulnerability to predation-were assessed as indicators of sublethal toxicity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in 96-hr exposures to sublethal concentrations of six agricultural chemicals: carbaryl, chlordane, dimethylamine salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-DMA), tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DBF 1), methyl parathion, and pentachlorophenol. After exposures, behavioral changes consistently demonstrated sublethal toxicity, but effects on specific behaviors varied with contaminants and their concentrations were altered by the water quality criterion concentration for chlordane (2 μg/L), and at a concentration...
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This article is the second in a series of three that describes the results of a Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) conducted in the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Area of Concern (IHAOC). The assessment area is located in northwest Indiana and was divided into nine reaches to facilitate the assessment. This component of the NRDA was undertaken to determine if fish and wildlife resources have been injured due to exposure to contaminants that are associated with discharges of oil or releases of other hazardous substances. To support this assessment, information was compiled on the chemical composition of sediment and tissues; on the toxicity of whole sediments, pore water, and elutriates to fish; on...
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From September to November 2000, United States Fish and Wildlife Service biologists investigated incidents involving 221 bird deaths at 3 mine sites located in New Mexico and Arizona. These bird deaths primarily involved passerine and waterfowl species and were assumed to be linked to consumption of acid metalliferous water (AMW). Because all of the carcasses were found in or near pregnant leach solution ponds, tailings ponds, and associated lakes or storm water retention basins, an acute-toxicity study was undertaken using a synthetic AMW (SAMW) formulation based on the contaminant profile of a representative pond believed to be responsible for avian mortalities. An acute oral-toxicity trial was performed with...
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We studied the bioavailability and toxicity of copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, and lead in sediments from Lake Roosevelt (LR), a reservoir on the Columbia River in Washington, USA that receives inputs of metals from an upstream smelter facility. We characterized chronic sediment toxicity, metal bioaccumulation, and metal concentrations in sediment and pore water from eight study sites: one site upstream in the Columbia River, six sites in the reservoir, and a reference site in an uncontaminated tributary. Total recoverable metal concentrations in LR sediments generally decreased from upstream to downstream in the study area, but sediments from two sites in the reservoir had metal concentrations much lower than adjacent...
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Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb-zinc (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory because of Pb concentrations. We evaluated blood sampling as a potentially nonlethal alternative to fillet sampling for Pb and other metals in northern hog sucker. Scaled, skin-on, bone-in "fillet" and blood samples were obtained from northern hog suckers (n = 75) collected at nine sites representing...
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We injected mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs with methylmercury chloride at doses of 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, and 6.4 μg mercury/g egg contents on a wet-weight basis. A case of hormesis seemed to occur because hatching success of eggs injected with 0.05 μg mercury (the lowest dose) was significantly greater (93.3%) than that of controls (72.6%), whereas hatching success decreased at progressively greater doses of mercury. Our finding of hormesis when a low dose of methylmercury was injected into eggs agrees with a similar observation in a study in which a group of female mallards was fed a low dietary concentration of methylmercury and hatching of their eggs was significantly better than that of controls....
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Components of the hydrologic budget for a northern Wisconsin seepage lake were analyzed by applying correlation and regression techniques to monthly data. Analyses for the 1981-83 water years revealed a statistically significant, direct relationship between storage change and precipitation-evaporation balance. Ground-water outflow was negatively correlated with ground-water inflow, and this relationship was influenced by similar relationships for both hydraulic gradients and cross-sectional areas in outflow versus inflow regions of the lake. Neither ground-water outflow nor inflow was significantly related to precipitation, evaporation, storage change, or lake stage; this may reflect a lag in response time of the...
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Tissues of greater scaup (Aythya marila mariloides) and components of their habitat (sediment, plankton, macroalgae, and invertebrates) were collected for heavy metal analysis in the winter of 1996-97 from US Department of the Interior wildlife refuges in the Long Island region. Geographic and temporal relationships between the concentration of nine metals in tissue and in habitat components were examined. In greater scaup tissues and habitat components, concentrations of As and Se were highest in Branford, Connecticut; Pb values were greatest in Oyster Bay, New York; and Hg concentrations were largest in Sandy Hook, New Jersey. Over the course of the winter, the concentration of Hg in liver increased, and concentrations...
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Small mammals were livetrapped in pickleweed (Salicornia virginica) habitats near San Francisco Bay, California in order to measure the uptake of several contaminants and to evaluate the potential effects of these contaminants on the endangered salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris). Tissues of house mice (Mus musculus), deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), and California voles (Microtus californicus) from nine sites were analyzed for chemical contaminants including mercury, selenium, cadmium, lead, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Concentrations of contaminants differed significantly among sites and species. Mean concentrations at sites where uptake was greatest were less than maximum means...
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Brain and plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activities were determined for mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos) exposed to dicrotophos and fenthion. Recovery rates of brain ChE did not differ between ducklings administered a single oral dose vs. a 2-week dietary dose of these organophosphates. Exposure to the organophosphates, followed by recovery of brain ChE, did not significantly affect the degree of brain ChE inhibition or the recovery of ChE activity at a subsequent exposure. Recovery of brain ChE activity followed the general model Y = a + b(logX) with rapid recovery to about 50% of normal, followed by a slower rate of recovery until normal ChE activity levels were attained. Fenthion and dicrotophos-inhibited...
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Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) were collected from a brackish-water and a nearly freshwater area in the contaminated Hackensack Meadowlands of New Jersey and an uncontaminated freshwater area in Maryland to determine the effects of environmental contaminants on a resident wetland species. No turtles were observed or caught in the Meadowlands at two trapping sites that were the most heavily contaminated by metals. Snapping turtles from the brackish-water area had an unusually low lipid content of body fat and reduced growth compared to turtles from the fresh-water areas in New Jersey and Maryland. Despite the serious metal contamination of the Hackensack Meadowlands, the metal content of kidneys and livers...
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Freshwater impoundments at Savannah National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), South Carolina, provide an important habitat for wildlife species, but degraded sediment quality in the Savannah River downstream of the discharge from two impoundments have caused concern about potential contaminant problems within the impoundments. The quality of sediments from five impoundments (impoundments no. 1, 2, 6, 7, and 17) on the NWR was evaluated using physical and chemical characterization, contaminant concentrations (metals, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), and toxicity testing. Survival of Hyalella azteca (freshwater amphipod) exposed for 28 days to solid-phase sediments...
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A single muscle plug was collected from each of 25 live razorback suckers inhabiting the Colorado River basin and analyzed for selenium by instrumental neutron activation. Eight fish from Ashley Creek and three from Razorback Bar exhibited selenium concentrations exceeding 8 μg/g, a level associated with reproductive failure in fish. Concentrations of selenium in eggs and milt were significantly correlated with selenium concentrations in muscle plugs and together indicate a possible explanation for the decline of this species in the Colorado River basin. Muscle plugs (<50mg) and muscle tissue (20 g) were collected from dorsal, anterior, and posterior areas of common carp, flannelmouth sucker, and an archived razorback...
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Contaminants of emerging concern, particularly endocrine active compounds (EACs), have been identified as a threat to aquatic wildlife. However, little is known about the impact of EACs on lakes through groundwater from onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS). This study aims to identify specific contributions of OWTS to Sullivan Lake, Minnesota, USA. Lake hydrology, water chemistry, caged bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and larval fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) exposures were used to assess whether EACs entered the lake through OWTS inflow and the resultant biological impact on fish. Study areas included two OWTS-influenced near-shore sites with native bluegill spawning habitats and two in-lake...
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Mining and smelting in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District has caused widespread contamination of soils with lead (Pb) and other metals. Soils from three study sites sampled in the district contained from approximately 1,000–3,200 mg Pb/kg. Analyses of earthworms [33–4,600 mg Pb/kg dry weight (dw)] collected in the district showed likely high Pb exposure of songbirds preying on soil organisms. Mean tissue Pb concentrations in songbirds collected from the contaminated sites were greater (p < 0.05) than those in songbirds from reference sites by factors of 8 in blood, 13 in liver, and 23 in kidney. Ranges of Pb concentrations in livers (mg Pb/kg dw) were as follows: northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis)...
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A 41.3-kg sample of double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) egg contents was extracted, yielding over 2 L of egg lipid. The double-crested cormorant (DCC) egg extract, after clean-up and concentration, was intended for use in egg injection studies to determine the embryotoxicity of the organic contaminants found within the eggs. Large-scale dialysis was used as a preliminary treatment to separate the extracted contaminants from the co-extracted sample lipids. The lipid was dialyzed in 80×5 cm semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) in 50-ml aliquants. After the removal of 87 g of cholesterol by freeze-fractionation, the remaining lipid carryover (56 g) was removed by 100 routine gel permeation chromatography...
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Lead poisoning of waterfowl has been reported for decades in the Coeur d?Alene River Basin (CDARB) in Idaho as a result of the ingestion of lead-contaminated sediments. This study was conducted to determine whether the addition of phosphoric acid to sediments would reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of lead to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) as related to adverse hematological effects and altered plasma chemistries. Mallards received diets containing 12% clean sediment (controls) or 12% sediment from three different CDARB sites containing 4520, 5390, or 6990 :g/g lead (dw) with or without phosphoric acid amendment. Blood lead concentrations were significantly higher in all CDARB treatment groups and ranged from...


map background search result map search result map Toxic exposure of songbirds to lead in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District Toxic exposure of songbirds to lead in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District