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The U.S. Department of Energy initiated a remedial investigation of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek system Superfund Site in 1989. This site, located in eastern Tennessee near Oak Ridge, consists of 70 river kilometers and 40 km(2) of surface area. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nature and extent of contamination, perform an ecological and human health risk assessment, and evaluate possible remedial alternatives. This introductory article summarizes the environmental setting, the contamination history, and the study approach and provides some general results of the site characterization. Subsequent papers in this series describe the ecological risks to fish, piscivorous and insectivorous wildlife, and...
Every production practice, including conservation tillage, has positive or negative environmental consequences that may involve air, land, water, and/or the health and ecological status of wildlife. The negative impacts associated with agricultural production, and the use of conventional tillage systems in particular, include soil erosion, energy use, leaching and runoff of agricultural chemicals, and carbon emissions. Several of these impacts are quantified. The conclusions suggest that the use of conservation tillage does result in less of an adverse impact on the environment from agricultural production than does conventional tillage by reducing surface water runoff and wind erosion. Additionally, wildlife habitat...
One of the characteristics of wind energy, from the grid point of view, is its non-dispatchability, i.e. generation cannot be ordered, hence integration in electrical networks may be difficult. Short-term wind power prediction-tools could make this integration easier, either by their use by the grid System Operator, or by promoting the participation of wind farms in the electricity markets and using prediction tools to make their bids in the market. In this paper, the importance of a short-term wind power-prediction tool for the participation of wind energy systems in electricity markets is studied. Simulations, according to the current Spanish market rules, have been performed to the production of different wind...