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This metadata record presents analytical results for laboratory microcosms conducted during 2016–18 as part of a study to develop a field test and numerical interpretation method to determine the effective diffusion coefficients and sorption coefficients of trichloroethene (TCE) and daughter products in the rock matrix of sedimentary rock, as well as biodegradation rate coefficients in the borehole. The biodegradation rate coefficients in the borehole are an important component of defining the back-diffusion of TCE from the matrix of sedimentary rock. Microcosm experiments were conducted with microbial community samples and groundwater collected from boreholes in the field test area to define anaerobic biodegradation...
The potential for in situ biodegradation of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) was investigated in three hydrologically distinct streams impacted by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the United States. Microcosms were prepared with sediments from each site and amended with [U-ring-14C]4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP) as a model test substrate. Microcosms prepared with sediment collected upstream of the WWTP outfalls and incubated under oxic conditions showed rapid and complete mineralization of [U-ring-14C]4-n-NP to 14CO2 in all three systems. In contrast, no mineralization of [U-ring-14C]4-n-NP was observed in these sediments under anoxic (methanogenic) conditions. The initial linear rate of [U-ring-14C]4-n-NP mineralization in...
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The dataset consists of 30-year percentage depletion calculations, hydrocarbon group compositions, organic carbon mass fractions and hydrocarbon concentrations for 16 locations sampled at the Bemidji (MN) oil spill study site. Also included in the dataset are concentrations for 33 individual volatile hydrocarbons from the aforementioned sampling locations.
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This version supersedes the previous version of this data release: Trost, J.J., Krall, A.L., Baedecker, M., Cozzarelli, I.M., Herkelrath, W.N., Jaeschke, J.B., and Bekins, B.A., 2018, Historical data sets including inorganic and organic chemistry of water, oil, and sediments, aquifer hydraulic conductivity, and sediment grain size distribution at the National Crude Oil Spill Fate and Natural Attenuation Research Site near Bemidji, Minnesota, USA, 1984-2010 (ver. 2.0, September 2019): U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/F7J101NV. This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Data Release provides data from samples and measurements completed at the National Crude Oil Spill Fate and Natural Attenuation...
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Water resources around the world are contaminated with per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) due to releases from point sources on military installations, fire training centers, and chemical manufacturing sites. Non-point sources have also been identified including wastewater effluent, landfills, and biosolids application. PFAS are a major concern to myriad stakeholders as some are known to bioaccumulate, they have eco-toxicity effects, and they are highly recalcitrant. PFAS are often called “forever chemicals” due to their environmental persistence but many precursor PFAS are transformed in the environment by microbes. Recent work has shown that PFAS can be biologically degraded in laboratory studies, but...
The present chapter focuses on the laboratory and field experiments that are used to quantify rates of biogeochemical processes and develop conceptual models of the role of bacteria in the carbon and energy flow in subsurface environments. Several integrated studies are presented that used multidisciplinary approach to examine the evolution of groundwater ecosystems. Because of the increasing i...
The time frame for natural attenuation of crude oil contamination in the subsurface has been studied for the last 27 years at a spill site located near Bemidji, Minnesota, USA. Data from the groundwater contaminant plume show that dissolved benzene concentrations adjacent to the oil decreased by 50% between 1993 and 2007. To assess how this decrease is related to benzene concentrations in the crude oil, samples of oil were bailed from floating oil in five wells and analysed for volatile components. Compared to reference oil collected from the pipeline in 1984, benzene concentrations in the well located farthest downgradient in the oil have decreased an average of 50%. Benzene and ethylbenzene depletion are linearly...
The biodegradation pathways of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TeCA) and 1,1,2-trichloroethane (112TCA) and the associated microbial communities in anaerobic wetland sediments were evaluated using concurrent geochemical and genetic analyses over time in laboratory microcosm experiments. Experimental results were compared to in situ porewater data in the wetland to better understand the factors controlling daughter product distributions in a chlorinated solvent plume discharging to a freshwater tidal wetland at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Microcosms constructed with wetland sediment from two sites showed little difference in the initial degradation steps of TeCA, which included simultaneous hydrogenolysis to 112TCA...
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) solute transport and biodegradation code BIOMOC was used in conjunction with the USGS universal inverse modeling code UCODE to quantify field-scale hydrocarbon dissolution and biodegradation at the USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Program crude-oil spill research site located near Bemidji, MN. This inverse modeling effort used the extensive historical data compiled at the Bemidji site from 1986 to 1997 and incorporated a multicomponent transport and biodegradation model. Inverse modeling was successful when coupled transport and degradation processes were incorporated into the model and a single dissolution rate coefficient was used for all BTEX components. Assuming a stationary...
Miscanthus is a newly introduced crop grown primarily to produce biomass for energy production and the area grown in the UK is anticipated to increase. Major differences in crop management from conventional arable crops have led to speculation that miscanthus may also have effects on farmland biodiversity. Six miscanthus fields were paired with six of a conventional crop, winter wheat, and bird diversity and abundance were compared in winter and during the breeding season along with potential food sources. Miscanthus fields had a greater abundance and diversity of birds than did wheat in winter and summer. In winter, the greater numbers of birds in miscanthus fields were probably attracted by the shelter provided...
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) solute transport and biodegradation code BIOMOC was used in conjunction with the USGS universal inverse modeling code UCODE to quantify field-scale hydrocarbon dissolution and biodegradation at the USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Program crude-oil spill research site located near Bemidji, MN. This inverse modeling effort used the extensive historical data compiled at the Bemidji site from 1986 to 1997 and incorporated a multicomponent transport and biodegradation model. Inverse modeling was successful when coupled transport and degradation processes were incorporated into the model and a single dissolution rate coefficient was used for all BTEX components. Assuming a stationary...
A methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) / tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) plume originating from a gasoline spill in late 1994 at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) persisted for over 15 years within 200 feet of the original spill source. The plume persisted until 2010 despite excavation of the tanks and piping within months after the spill and excavations of additional contaminated sediments from the source area in 2007 and 2008. The probable history of MTBE concentrations along the plume centerline at its source was estimated using a wide variety of available information, including published details about the original spill, excavations and monitoring by VAFB consultants, and our own research data. Two-dimensional reactive transport...
The time frame for natural attenuation of crude oil contamination in the subsurface has been studied for the last 27 years at a spill site located near Bemidji, Minnesota, USA. Data from the groundwater contaminant plume show that dissolved benzene concentrations adjacent to the oil decreased by 50% between 1993 and 2007. To assess how this decrease is related to benzene concentrations in the crude oil, samples of oil were bailed from floating oil in five wells and analysed for volatile components. Compared to reference oil collected from the pipeline in 1984, benzene concentrations in the well located farthest downgradient in the oil have decreased an average of 50%. Benzene and ethylbenzene depletion are linearly...
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This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Data Release is focused on the geochemistry of wells within the oil zone and groundwater monitoring wells away from the oiled zone at the National Crude Oil Spill Fate and Natural Attenuation Research Site, Bemidji MN (USA) from 1985-2015. The site located in Beltrami County is where a high-pressure pipeline carrying crude oil burst in 1979 and spilled approximately 1.7 million liters (10,700 barrels) of crude oil into glacial outwash deposits. Researchers and scientists from government agencies, academic institutions, the regulatory community, and private companies have conducted extensive investigations of groundwater geochemistry in hopes of understanding the evolution of plumes...
Tags: BTEX, Beltrami, Bemidji, Environmental Health, Geochemistry, All tags...
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Natural attenuation of organic contaminants in groundwater can give rise to a series of complex biogeochemical reactions that release secondary contaminants to groundwater. In a crude oil contaminated aquifer, biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons is coupled with the reduction of ferric iron (Fe(III)) hydroxides in aquifer sediments. As a result, naturally occurring arsenic (As), adsorbed to Fe(III) hydroxides in the aquifer sediment, is mobilized from sediment into groundwater. However, Fe(III) in sediment of other zones of the aquifer has the capacity to attenuate dissolved As via re-sorption. To better evaluate how long-term biodegradation coupled with Fe-reduction and As mobilization can redistribute As mass...
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This USGS data release includes all the data presented in peer-reviewed publication entitled "Degradation of MCHM (4-methylcyclohexanemethanol) in Sediments from Elk River, West Virginia". We conducted experiments on crude MCHM to examine photooxidation or biodegradation. We also assessed the potential of sediments to serve as a long-term source of MCHM and well as the potential for native microbial communities to catalyze the anaerobic breakdown of MCHM. We developed a quantitative method to measure the 2 isomers (cis- and trans-) of 4-MCHM, using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME), which had a minimum detection limit of 5 µg/L. The data release shows that the abiotic degradation experiments showed no evidence...
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In a crude-oil-contaminated sandy aquifer at the Bemidji site in northern Minnesota, biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons has resulted in release of naturally occurring As to groundwater under Fe-reducing conditions. This data set was collected for a study that used chemical extractions of aquifer sediments collected in 1993 and 2011-2014 to evaluate the relationship between Fe and As in different redox zones (oxic, methanogenic, Fe-reducing, anoxic-sub-oxic transition) of the contaminated aquifer over a twenty year period. The data presented showed that 1) the aquifer has the capacity to naturally attenuate the plume of dissolved As, primarily through sorption; 2) Fe and As are linearly correlated in sediment...
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) solute transport and biodegradation code BIOMOC was used in conjunction with the USGS universal inverse modeling code UCODE to quantify field-scale hydrocarbon dissolution and biodegradation at the USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Program crude-oil spill research site located near Bemidji, MN. This inverse modeling effort used the extensive historical data compiled at the Bemidji site from 1986 to 1997 and incorporated a multicomponent transport and biodegradation model. Inverse modeling was successful when coupled transport and degradation processes were incorporated into the model and a single dissolution rate coefficient was used for all BTEX components. Assuming a stationary...
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This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Data Release provides concentrations from groundwater and soil extracts for iron (Fe), barium (Ba), strontium (Sr), cobalt (Co), and nickel (Ni). Groundwater analyses for pH and alkalinity are also included. Samples were collected at the National Crude Oil Spill Fate and Natural Attenuation Research Site, near Bemidji MN (USA) between 2009-2019. The site is in Beltrami County, where a high-pressure pipeline carrying crude oil burst in 1979 and spilled approximately 1.7 million liters (10,700 barrels) into glacial outwash deposits. A trace element plume occurred at the site, in which concentrations of Fe, Co, Ni, Ba, and Sr were mobilized from the sediments into the groundwater....


    map background search result map search result map Chemical extraction results of aquifer sediments for concentrations of iron and arsenic in different redox zones at the crude-oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota Arsenic and Iron data (2010-2015) for petroleum plume mass balance, Bemidji MN MCHM Degradation Data Release Weathering of Oil in a Surficial Aquifer, Bemidji, MN Data Sets from the National Crude Oil Spill Fate and Natural Attenuation Research Site near Bemidji, Minnesota, USA (ver. 3.0, April 2020) Volatile Organic Compound and Other Analyses Associated with Laboratory Microcosm Experiments to Determine Biodegradation Rates in Fractured Sedimentary Rock at the Former Naval Air Warfare Center in West Trenton, New Jersey, 2016–18 Geochemistry data collected (1985-2015) for understanding the evolution of groundwater-contaminant plume chemistry emanating from legacy contaminant sources, an example from a long-term crude oil spill near Bemidji, Minnesota Data on barium, strontium, cobalt, and nickel plumes formed during microbial iron-reduction on sediments and in water from a crude-oil-contaminated aquifer, Bemidji, Minnesota (2009-2019) Microbial Populations in PFHxSAm (perfluorohexane sulfonamido propyl amine) Biodegradation Microcosms Volatile Organic Compound and Other Analyses Associated with Laboratory Microcosm Experiments to Determine Biodegradation Rates in Fractured Sedimentary Rock at the Former Naval Air Warfare Center in West Trenton, New Jersey, 2016–18 Geochemistry data collected (1985-2015) for understanding the evolution of groundwater-contaminant plume chemistry emanating from legacy contaminant sources, an example from a long-term crude oil spill near Bemidji, Minnesota Data on barium, strontium, cobalt, and nickel plumes formed during microbial iron-reduction on sediments and in water from a crude-oil-contaminated aquifer, Bemidji, Minnesota (2009-2019) Data Sets from the National Crude Oil Spill Fate and Natural Attenuation Research Site near Bemidji, Minnesota, USA (ver. 3.0, April 2020) Microbial Populations in PFHxSAm (perfluorohexane sulfonamido propyl amine) Biodegradation Microcosms Weathering of Oil in a Surficial Aquifer, Bemidji, MN MCHM Degradation Data Release Chemical extraction results of aquifer sediments for concentrations of iron and arsenic in different redox zones at the crude-oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota Arsenic and Iron data (2010-2015) for petroleum plume mass balance, Bemidji MN