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The decline in loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) populations is widespread and coincides with the use of organochlorines that began in the late 1940's and increased until the 1970's (Morrison 1981; Robbins et al. 1986; Tate 1986). An inhabitant of farmland areas, loggerhead shrikes prey on invertebrates and small vertebrates (Bent 1950), and thus risk exposure to pesticides and other agricultural chemicals. The role of contaminants in the decline of loggerhead shrikes has only been partially assessed (Busbee 1977; Anderson and Duzan 1978; Morrison 1979; Rudd et al. 1981). Studies of the nesting and winter ecology of loggerhead shrikes (Luukkonen 1987; Blumton 1989) during 1985-88 in the Shenandoah Valley,...
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Four wells downgradient from a landfill near Elkhart, Indiana were sampled during 2000–2002 to evaluate the presence of waste-indicator and pharmaceutical compounds in landfill-leachate-affected ground water. Compounds detected in leachate-affected ground water included detergent metabolites (p-nonylphenol, nonylphenol monoethoxylate, nonylphenol diethoxylate, and octylphenol monoethoxylate), plasticizers (ethanol-2-butoxy-phosphate and diethylphthalate), a plastic monomer (bisphenol A), disinfectants (1,4-dichlorobenzene and triclosan), an antioxidant (5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole), three fire-retardant compounds (tributylphosphate and tri(2-chloroethyl)phosphate, and tri(dichlorisopropyl)phosphate), and several pharmaceuticals...
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Deicers such as sodium chloride and calcium chloride are used to treat snow and ice on road surfaces and have been identified as potential stressors on aquatic life. Hinkson Creek is an urban stream on the Missouri 303(d) list of impaired waters and is classified as impaired due to urban non-point source pollution. A 7-day toxicity test using Ceriodaphnia dubia was conducted to assess the toxicity of stream water during snowmelt at seven sites within the Hinkson Creek watershed. Chloride concentrations at two sites (Site 6, 1252 mg Cl/L; Site 4, 301 mg Cl/L) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency chronic criterion (230 mg Cl/L). Survival (30 %) and total reproduction (6.9 young/adult) of C. dubia at Site...
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Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DH; Benadryl TM, an over-the-counter antihistamine) and erythromycin thiocyanate (ET; a commonly used macrolide antibiotic) are pharmaceutical compounds whose chronic toxicity to Daphnia magna had not been characterized. Continuous exposure to DH concentrations about 5 times greater than the maximum reported environmental concentration of 0.023 lg/L for 21 days or to ET concentrations about 40 times the maximum reported environmental concentration of 6 (mu or u)g/L for 21 days did not significantly impact D. magna survival and production. In this study the no observable effect concentration for DH was 0.12 (mu or u)g/L and for ET was 248 (mu or u)g/L.
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Eggs of captive black ducks fed diets containing DDE at 10 and 30 ppm (dry weight) experienced significant shell thinning and an increase in shell cracking when compared to eggs of untreated black ducks. Eggshells from dosed ducks were: 18-24 percent thinner at the equator than shells from undosed ducks; 28-31 percent thinner at the cap; and 29-38 percent thinner at the apex. Shell cracking averaged 21 percent among eggs fram the 30 ppm DDE dosage and 10 percent among eggs from the 10 ppm dosage. Only 2 percent of the eggs from untreated black ducks were cracked. Survival of ducklings fram dosed parents in terms of 'percentage of 21-day ducklings of embryonated eggs' was 40-76 percent lower than survival of ducklings...
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Chlorinated benzenes are widespread in the environment. Hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene and all isomers of dichlorobenzenes, trichlorobenzenes, and tetrachlorobenzenes, have been detected in fish, water, and sediments from the Great Lakes. This paper describes a long-term (26 week) experiment relating the concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 1) the length of exposure, and it describes three 8-week experiments relating concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 2) their concentration in soil 3) the soil organic matter content and, 4) the degree of chlorination. In the 26-week experiment, the concentration of 1,2,4 - trichlorobenzene in earthworms fluctuated only slightly about...
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Various studies indicate that PCBs appear to have an adverse effect on the viability of fertilized eggs and subsequent early life stages of lake trout and related species. Our tests detected no impairment of fertilization of lake trout eggs in PCB-dosed lake water. The concentration of PCBs in the fertilization medium that we used was more than 20 times as high as estimated ambient levels in southeastern Lake Michigan and it appears unlikley that ambient levels of PCBs in the water at fertilization would contribute significantly to the apparent widespread reproductive failure of lake trout there.
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Mercury concentrations in the sediments of south Florida wetlands have increased three fold in the last century (Rood et al. 1993). Because south Florida is home to many endemic and endangered species, it is important to understand the potential impacts of mercury in this ecosystem's food web. Recent research by Malley et al. (1996) has shown mollusks to be sensitive indicators of methyl mercury which can reflect small differences in background methyl mercury concentrations. In this study, we attempted to determine if the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) or its eggs are good indicators of bioavailable mercury. Then, using the apple snail as an indicator, we attempted to determine geographic differences in the concentrations...
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Lead (Pb) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were measured in fillet samples of longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) and redhorse suckers (Moxostoma spp.) collected in 2005–2012 from the Big River, which drains a historical mining area in southeastern Missouri and where a consumption advisory is in effect due to elevated Pb concentrations in fish. Lead tends to accumulated in Ca-rich tissues such as bone and scale. Concentrations of Pb in fish muscle are typically low, but can become elevated in fillets from Pb-contaminated sites depending in part on how much bone, scale, and skin is included in the sample. We used analysis-of-covariance to normalize Pb concentration to the geometric mean Ca concentration (415 ug/g...
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Gray bat guano from Devil's Icebox and Hunters Caves contained dieldrin at levels previously associated with gray bat mortality. Two of four gray bats found dead in Holton Cave had lethal brain concentrations of dieldrin. Twenty-five of 28 (86%) insect samples from bat foraging areas contained measurable dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide or both. Beetle samples were most heavily contaminated containing up to 2.2 ppm and 1.1 ppm heptachlor epoxide. The addition of Holton Cave brings to five the number of Missouri caves where gray bats have died of food chain pesticide poisoning.
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Mallard ducklings were fed a diet containing Prudhoe Bay crude oil or Corexit 9527 for 9 weeks; weight and blood chemistries were measured.