Skip to main content
Advanced Search

Filters: Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology (X)

193 results (52ms)   

View Results as: JSON ATOM CSV
thumbnail
The 1992 eruption of Crater Peak, Mount Spurr, Alaska, involved three subplinian tephra-producing events of similar volume and duration. The tephra consists of two dense juvenile clast types that are identified by color, one tan and one gray, of similar chemistry, mineral assemblage, and glass composition. In two of the eruptive events, the clast types are strongly stratified with tan clasts dominating the basal two thirds of the deposits and gray clasts the upper one third. Tan clasts have average densities between 1.5 and 1.7 g/cc and vesicularities (phenocryst free) of approximately 42%. Gray clasts have average densities between 2.1 and 2.3 g/cc, and vesicularities of approximately 20%; both contain abundant...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
thumbnail
The Breccia Museo is one of the most debated volcanic formations of the Campi Flegrei volcanic district. The deposit, made up of six distinctive stratigraphic units, has been interpreted by some as the proximal facies of the major caldera-forming Campanian Ignimbrite eruption, and by others as the product of several, more recent, independent and localized events. New geochemical and chemostratigraphical data and Ar - Ar age determinations for several units of the Breccia Museo deposits (???39 ka), correlate well with the Campanian Ignimbrite-forming eruption. The chemical zoning of the Breccia Museo deposits is interpreted here to be a consequence of a three-stage event that tapped a vertically zoned trachytic magma...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
thumbnail
The May 2005 eruption of Fernandina volcano, Galápagos, occurred along circumferential fissures parallel to the caldera rim and fed lava flows down the steep southwestern slope of the volcano for several weeks. This was the first circumferential dike intrusion ever observed by both InSAR and GPS measurements and thus provides an opportunity to determine the subsurface geometry of these enigmatic structures that are common on Galápagos volcanoes but are rare elsewhere. Pre- and post- eruption ground deformation between 2002 and 2006 can be modeled by the inflation of two separate magma reservoirs beneath the caldera: a shallow sill at ~1 km depth and a deeper point-source at ~5 km depth, and we infer that this system...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
thumbnail
Volcán Alcedo is one of the seven western Galápagos shields and is the only active Galápagos volcano known to have erupted rhyolite as well as basalt. The volcano stands 4 km above the sea floor and has a subaerial volume of 200 km3, nearly all of which is basalt. As Volcán Alcedo grew, it built an elongate domal shield, which was partly truncated during repeated caldera-collapse and partial-filling episodes. An outward-dipping sequence of basalt flows at least 250 m thick forms the steepest (to 33°) flanks of the volcano and is not tilted; thus a constructional origin for the steep upper flanks is favored. About 1 km3 of rhyolite erupted late in the volcano's history from at least three vents and in 2–5 episodes....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
thumbnail
An elastic point source model proposed by Mogi for magma chamber inflation and deflation has been applied to geodetic data collected at many volcanoes. The volume of ground surface uplift or subsidence estimated from this model is closely related to the volume of magma injection into or withdrawal from the reservoir below. The analytical expressions for these volumes are reviewed for a spherical chamber and it is shown that they differ by the factor 2(1-v), where v is Poisson's ratio of the host rock. For the common estimate v=0.25, as used by Mogi and subsequent workers, the uplift volume is 3/2 the injection volume. For highly fractured rocks, v can be even less and the uplift volume can approach twice the injection...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
thumbnail
40Ar/39Ar age spectra have been obtained from 85 sanidine separates from 36 ignimbrites and one rhyolitic lava in the latest Eocene-Oligocene Mogollon-Datil volcanic field of southwestern New Mexico. Of the 97 measured age spectra, 94 yield weighted-mean plateau ages each giving single-spectrum 1?? precision of??0.25%-0.4% (??0.07-0.14 Ma). Replicate plateau age determinations for eight different samples show within-sample 1?? precisions averaging ??0.25%. Plateau ages from multiple (n=3-8) samples of individual ignimbrites show 1?? within-unit precision of ??0.1%-0.4% (??0.04-0.13 Ma). This within-unit precision represents a several-fold improvement over published K-Ar data for the same ignimbrites, and is similar...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
thumbnail
We sampled basaltic lava flows and underlying dacitic tuff deposits in or near lava tubes of the Cave Basalt, Mount St. Helens, Washington to determine whether the Cave Basalt lavas contain geochemical evidence of substrate contamination by lava erosion. The samples were analyzed using a combination of wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the oldest, outer lava tube linings in direct contact with the dacitic substrate are contaminated, whereas the younger, inner lava tube linings are uncontaminated and apparently either more evolved or enriched in residual liquid. The most heavily contaminated lavas occur closer to the vent...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
thumbnail
A new category of large-scale volcanism, here termed Snake River (SR)-type volcanism, is defined with reference to a distinctive volcanic facies association displayed by Miocene rocks in the central Snake River Plain area of southern Idaho and northern Nevada, USA. The facies association contrasts with those typical of silicic volcanism elsewhere and records unusual, voluminous and particularly environmentally devastating styles of eruption that remain poorly understood. It includes: (1) large-volume, lithic-poor rhyolitic ignimbrites with scarce pumice lapilli; (2) extensive, parallel-laminated, medium to coarse-grained ashfall deposits with large cuspate shards, crystals and a paucity of pumice lapilli; many are...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
thumbnail
 Oxygen-isotope analyses of lavas from Medicine Lake volcano (MLV), in the southern Cascade Range, indicate a significant change in δ18O in Holocene time. In the Pleistocene, basaltic lavas with <52% SiO2 averaged +5.9‰, intermediate lavas averaged +5.7‰, and silicic lavas (≥63.0%SiO2) averaged +5.6‰. No analyzed Pleistocene rhyolites or dacites have values greater than +6.3‰. In post-glacial time, basalts were similar at +5.7‰ to those erupted in the Pleistocene, but intermediate lavas average +6.8‰ and silicic lavas +7.4‰ with some values as high as +8.5‰. The results indicate a change in the magmatic system supplying the volcano. During the Pleistocene, silicic lavas resulted either from melting of low-18O crust...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
thumbnail
A small explosive eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, occurred in May 1924. The eruption was preceded by rapid draining of a lava lake and transfer of a large volume of magma from the summit reservoir to the east rift zone. This lowered the magma column, which reduced hydrostatic pressure beneath Halemaumau and allowed groundwater to flow rapidly into areas of hot rock, producing a phreatic eruption. A comparison with other events at Kilauea shows that the transfer of a large volume of magma out of the summit reservoir is not sufficient to produce a phreatic eruption. For example, the volume transferred at the beginning of explosive activity in May 1924 was less than the volumes transferred in March 1955 and January-February...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
thumbnail
Volcanic gas samples were collected from July to November 1985 from a lava pond in the main eruptive conduit of Pu'u O'o from a 2-week-long fissure eruption and from a minor flank eruption of Pu'u O'o. The molecular composition of these gases is consistent with thermodynamic equilibrium at a temperature slightly less than measured lava temperatures. Comparison of these samples with previous gas samples shows that the composition of volatiles in the magma has remained constant over the 3-year course of this episodic east rift eruption of Kilauea volcano. The uniformly carbon depleted nature of these gases is consistent with previous suggestions that all east rift eruptive magmas degas during prior storage in the...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
thumbnail
Rock shear strength plays a fundamental role in volcano flank collapse, yet pertinent data from modern collapse surfaces are rare. Using samples collected from the inferred failure surface of the massive 1980 collapse of Mount St. Helens (MSH), we determined rock shear strength via laboratory tests designed to mimic conditions in the pre-collapse edifice. We observed that the 1980 failure shear surfaces formed primarily in pervasively shattered older dome rocks; failure was not localized in sloping volcanic strata or in weak, hydrothermally altered rocks. Our test results show that rock shear strength under large confining stresses is reduced ∼20% as a result of large quasi-static shear strain, as preceded the 1980...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
thumbnail
In order to gain information on the distribution of metals between particles and gaseous forms in the plume of Kilauea volcano, a filter designed to collect metals associated with particles was followed in series by two other collectors intended to trap metals present in gaseous (atomic, molecular, or complexed) form: first an acid-bubbler bath and then a cold trap. Of the six metals measured, all of the In, Tl and Bi, and almost all of the Cd, Pb and Cu were found on the filter. None of any of the metals was detected in the acid-bubbler bath. Masses equivalent to 0.3% of the amount of Cd on the filter, 0.4% of the amount of Pb, and 9.3% of the Cu, were measured in the cold trap. The results indicate that all or...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
thumbnail
Helium (He) concentration and 3 He/ 4 He anomalies in soil gas and spring water are potentially powerful tools for investigating hydrothermal circulation associated with volca- nism and could perhaps serve as part of a hazards warning system. However, in operational practice, He and other gases are often sampled only after volcanic unrest is detected by other means. A new passive diffusion sampler suite, intended to be collected after the onset of unrest, has been developed and tested as a relatively low-cost method of determining He- isotope composition pre- and post-unrest. The samplers, each with a distinct equilibration time, passively record He concen- tration and isotope ratio in springs and soil gas. Once...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
thumbnail
Lava lakes can be considered as proxies for small magma chambers, offering a unique opportunity to investigate magma evolution and solidification. Repeated magnetic ground surveys over more than 50 years each show a large vertical magnetic intensity anomaly associated with Kīlauea Iki Crater, partly filled with a lava lake during the 1959 eruption of Kīlauea Volcano (Island of Hawai’i). The magnetic field values recorded across the Kīlauea Iki crater floor and the cooling lava lake below result from three simple effects: the static remnant magnetization of the rocks forming the steep crater walls, the solidifying lava lake crust, and the hot, but shrinking, paramagnetic non-magnetic lens (>540 °C). We calculate...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
thumbnail
Gas pistoning is a type of eruptive behavior described first at Kīlauea volcano and characterized by the (commonly) cyclic rise and fall of the lava surface within a volcanic vent or lava lake. Though recognized for decades, its cause continues to be debated, and determining why and when it occurs has important implications for understanding vesiculation and outgassing processes at basaltic volcanoes. Here, we describe gas piston activity that occurred at the Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō cone, in Kīlauea’s east rift zone, during June 2006. Direct, detailed measurements of lava level, made from time-lapse camera images captured at close range, show that the gas pistons during the study period lasted from 2 to 60 min, had volumes ranging...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
thumbnail
A study of the geoelectrical structure of the central part of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Reunion, Indian Ocean) was made using direct current electrical (DC) and transient electromagnetic soundings (TEM). Piton de la Fournaise is a highly active oceanic basaltic shield and has been active for more than half a million years. Joint interpretation of the DC and TEM data allows us to obtain reliable 1D models of the resistivity distribution. The depth of investigation is of the order of 1.5 km but varies with the resistivity pattern encountered at each sounding. Two-dimensional resistivity cross sections were constructed by interpolation between the soundings of the 1D interpreted models. Conductors with resistivities...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
thumbnail
We present a comparative study of soil CO2 flux (FCO2) measured by five groups (Groups 1–5) at the IAVCEI-CCVG Eighth Workshop on Volcanic Gases on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. Groups 1–5 measured FCO2 using the accumulation chamber method at 5-m spacing within a 900 m2 grid during a morning (AM) period. These measurements were repeated by Groups 1–3 during an afternoon (PM) period. Measured FCO2 ranged from 218 to 14,719 g m−2 day−1. The variability of the five measurements made at each grid point ranged from ±5 to 167%. However, the arithmetic means of fluxes measured over the entire grid and associated total CO2 emission rate estimates varied between groups by only ±22%. All three groups that made PM measurements...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
thumbnail
Mount Rainier is one of the most seismically active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, with an average of one to two high-frequency volcano-tectonic (or VT) earthquakes occurring directly beneath the summit in a given month. Despite this level of seismicity, little is known about its cause. The VT earthquakes occur at a steady rate in several clusters below the inferred base of the Quaternary volcanic edifice. More than half of 18 focal mechanisms determined for these events are normal, and most stress axes deviate significantly from the regional stress field. We argue that these characteristics are most consistent with earthquakes in response to processes associated with circulation of fluids and magmatic gases within...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
thumbnail
Following an initial phreatic eruption on 21 December 1994, activity at Popocatepetl has been dominated by fumarolic emissions interspersed with more energetic emissions of ashes and gases. A phase of repetitive dome-building and dome-destroying episodes began in March 1996 and is still ongoing at present. We describe the long-period (LP) seismicity accompanying eruptive activity at Popocatepetl from December 1994 through May 2000, using data from a three-component broadband seismometer located 5 km from the summit crater. The broadband records display a variety of signals, with periods ranging in the band 0.04-90 s. Long-period events and tremor with typical dominant periods in the range 0.3-2.0 s are the most...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology


map background search result map search result map Time-lapse camera observations of gas piston activity at Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō, Kīlauea volcano, Hawai‘i Time-lapse camera observations of gas piston activity at Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō, Kīlauea volcano, Hawai‘i