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The 2.08-Ma Cerro Galán Ignimbrite (CGI) represents a >630-km3 dense rock equivalent (VEI 8) eruption from the long-lived Cerro Galán magma system (∼6 Ma). It is a crystal-rich (35–60%), pumice (<10% generally) and lithic-poor (<5% generally) rhyodacitic ignimbrite, lacking a preceding plinian fallout deposit. The CGI is preserved up to 80 km from the structural margins of the caldera, but almost certainly was deposited up to 100 km from the caldera in some places. Only one emplacement unit is preserved in proximal to medial settings and in most distal settings, suggesting constant flow conditions, but where the pyroclastic flow moved into a palaeotopography of substantial valleys and ridges, it interacted with...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
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Popocatépetl is one of Mexico’s most active volcanoes threatening a densely populated area that includes Mexico City with more than 20 million inhabitants. The destructive potential of this volcano is demonstrated by its Late Pleistocene–Holocene eruptive activity, which has been characterized by recurrent Plinian eruptions of large magnitude, the last two of which destroyed human settlements in pre-Hispanic times. Popocatépetl’s reawakening in 1994 produced a crisis that culminated with the evacuation of two villages on the northeastern flank of the volcano. Shortly after, a monitoring system and a civil protection contingency plan based on a hazard zone map were implemented. The current volcanic hazards map considers...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
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The youngest major caldera-forming event at Yellowstone was the ~ 630-ka eruption of the Lava Creek Tuff. The tuff as mapped consists of two major ignimbrite packages (members A and B), linked to widespread coeval fall deposits and formation of the Yellowstone Caldera. Subsequent activity included emplacement of numerous rhyolite flows and domes, and development of two structurally resurgent domes (Mallard Lake and Sour Creek) that accommodate strain due to continual uplift/subsidence cycles. Uplifted lithologies previously mapped on and adjacent to Sour Creek dome were thought to include the ~ 2.08-Ma Huckleberry Ridge Tuff, cropping out beneath Lava Creek Tuff members A and B. Mapped outcrops of this Huckleberry...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
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Columnar jointing is thought to occur primarily in lavas and welded pyroclastic flow deposits. However, the non-welded Cerro Galán Ignimbrite at Paycuqui, Argentina, contains well-developed columnar joints that are instead due to high-temperature vapor-phase alteration of the deposit, where devitrification and vapor-phase crystallization have increased the density and cohesion of the upper half of the section. Thermal remanent magnetization analyses of entrained lithic clasts indicate high emplacement temperatures, above 630°C, but the lack of welding textures indicates temperatures below the glass transition temperature. In order to remain below the glass transition at 630°C, the minimum cooling rate prior to deposition...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
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Sierra Negra volcano began erupting on 22 October 2005, after a repose of 26 years. A plume of ash and steam more than 13 km high accompanied the initial phase of the eruption and was quickly followed by a ~2-km-long curtain of lava fountains. The eruptive fissure opened inside the north rim of the caldera, on the opposite side of the caldera from an active fault system that experienced an mb 4.6 earthquake and ~84 cm of uplift on 16 April 2005. The main products of the eruption were an `a`a flow that ponded in the caldera and clastigenic lavas that flowed down the north flank. The `a`a flow grew in an unusual way. Once it had established most of its aerial extent, the interior of the flow was fed via a perched...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
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During the 1969-1974 Mauna Ulu eruption on Kilauea's upper east rift zone, lava tubes were observed to develop by four principal processes: (1) flat, rooted crusts grew across streams within confined channels; (2) overflows and spatter accreted to levees to build arched roofs across streams; (3) plates of solidified crust floating downstream coalesced to form a roof; and (4) pahoehoe lobes progressively extended, fed by networks of distributaries beneath a solidified crust. Still another tube-forming process operated when pahoehoe entered the ocean; large waves would abruptly chill a crust across the entire surface of a molten stream crossing through the surf zone. These littoral lava tubes formed abruptly, in contrast...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
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Condensate samples were collected in 1992 from a high-temperature (300?? C) fumarole on the floor of the Halemaumau Pit Crater at Kilauea. The emergence about two years earlier of such a hot fumarole was unprecedented at such a central location at Kilauea. The condensates have hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions which indicate that the waters emitted by the fumarole are composed largely of meteoric water, that any magmatic water component must be minor, and that the precipitation that was the original source to the fumarole fell on a recharge area on the slopes of Mauna Loa Volcano to the west. However, the fumarole has no tritium, indicating that it taps a source of water that has been isolated from atmospheric...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
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Six volcanic zones comprise São Miguel, the largest island in the Azores. All are Quaternary in age except the last, which is partly Pliocene. From west to east the zones are (1) the trachyte stratovolcano of Sete Cidades, (2) a field of alkali-basalt cinder cones and lava flows with minor trachyte, (3) the trachyte stratovolcano of Agua de Pau, (4) a field of alkali-basalt cinder cones and lava flows with minor trachyte and tristanite, (5) the trachyte stratovolcano of Furnas, and (6) the Nordeste shield, which includes the Povoação caldera and consists of alkali basalt, tristanite, and trachyte. New radiocarbon and K-Ar ages augment stratigraphic data obtained during recent geologic mapping of the entire island...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
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Detailed geologic mapping and radiocarbon dating of tholeiitic basalts covering about 275 km2 on the lower east rift zone (LERZ) and adjoining flanks of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, show that at least 112 separate eruptions have occurred during the past 2360 years. Eruptive products include spatter ramparts and cones, a shield, two extensive lithic-rich tuff deposits, aa and pahoehoe flows, and three littoral cones. Areal coverage, number of eruptions and average dormant interval estimates in years for the five age groups assigned are: (I) historic, i.e. A D 1790 and younger: 25%, 5, 42.75; (II) 200-400 years old: 50%, 15, 14.3: (III) 400-750 years old: 20%, 54, 6.6; (IV) 750-1500 years old: 5%, 37, 20.8; (V) 1500-3000...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
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The explosion of a cryptodome at Mount St. Helens in 1980 produced two juvenile rock types that are derived from the same source magma. Their differences-color, texture and density-are due only to vesicularity differences. The vesicular gray dacite comprises bout 72% of the juvenile material; the black dacite comprises the other 28%. The density of juvenile dacite is bimodally distributed, with peaks at 1.6 g cm-3 (gray dacite) and 2.3 g cm-3 (black dacite). Water contents, deuterium abundances, and the relationship of petrographic structures to vapor-phase crystals indicate both rock types underwent pre-explosion subsurface vesiculation and degassing. The gray dacite underwent a second vesiculation event, probably...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
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In volcanoes that store a significant quantity of magma within a subsurface summit reservoir, such as Kilauea, bulk compression of stored magma is an important mode of deformation. Accumulation of magma is also accompanied by crustal deformation, usually manifested at the surface as uplift. These two modes of deformation - bulk compression of resident magma and deformation of the volcanic edifice - act in concert to accommodate the volume of newly added magma. During deflation, the processes reverse and reservoir magma undergoes bulk decompression, the chamber contracts, and the ground surface subsides. Because magma compression plays a role in creating subsurface volume of accommodate magma, magma budget estimates...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
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The correlation spectrometer (COSPEC), the principal tool for remote measurements of volcanic SO2, is rapidly being replaced by low-cost, miniature, ultraviolet (UV) spectrometers. We compared two of these new systems with a COSPEC by measuring SO2 column amounts at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaii. The two systems, one calibrated using in-situ SO2 cells, and the other using a calibrated laboratory reference spectrum, employ similar spectrometer hardware, but different foreoptics and spectral retrieval algorithms. Accuracy, signal-to-noise, retrieval parameters, and precision were investigated for the two configurations of new miniature spectrometer. Measurements included traverses beneath the plumes from the summit and...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
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In late 2007, a perched lava channel, built up to 45 m above the preexisting surface, developed during the ongoing eruption near Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō cone on Kīlauea Volcano’s east rift zone. The lava channel was segmented into four pools extending over a total of 1.4 km. From late October to mid-December, a cyclic behavior, consisting of steady lava level rise terminated by vigorous spattering and an abrupt drop in lava level, was commonly observed in pool 1. We use geologic observations, video, time-lapse camera images, and seismicity to characterize and understand this cyclic behavior. Spattering episodes occurred at intervals of 40–100 min during peak activity and involved small (5–10-m-high) fountains limited to the margins...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
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A conceptual model of the geometry and dynamics of the Mount Spurr magmatic system is developed using seismic, geochemical, and visual observations of the 1992 Crater Peak eruption sequence. The basis for this model is a new classification of all located seismic events and results from prior studies of seismology, geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of the Mount Spurr area. Significant seismic features of the 1992 eruption sequence include (1) a distinct swarm of volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes in August 1991 directly beneath the Crater Peak vent, (2) a caldera-wide increase in VT earthquakes, lasting 7 months, which preceded the 27 June eruption, (3) two shallow swarms of VT earthquakes that occured on 5 June...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
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The submarine Mahukona Volcano, west of the island of Hawaii, is located on the Loa loci line between Kahoolawe and Hualalai Volcanoes. The west rift zone ridge of the volcano extends across a drowned coral reef at about-1150 m and a major slope break at about-1340 m, both of which represent former shoreines. The summit of the volcano apparently reached to about 250 m above sea level (now at-1100 m depth) did was surmounted by a roughly circular caldera. A econd rift zone probably extended toward the east or sutheast, but is completely covered by younger lavas from the adjacent subaerial volcanoes. Samples were vecovered from nine dredges and four submersible lives. Using subsidence rates and the compositions of...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
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Glassy bubble-wall fragments, morphologically similar to littoral limu o Pele, have been found in volcanic sands erupted on Lo'ihi Seamount and along the submarine east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano. The limu o Pele fragments are undegassed with respect to H2O and S and formed by mild steam explosions. Angular glass sand fragments apparently form at similar, and greater, depths by cooling-contraction granulation. The limu o Pele fragments from Lo'ihi Seamount are dominantly tholeiitic basalt containing 6.25-7.25% MgO. None of the limu o Pele samples from Lo'ihi Seamount contains less than 5.57% MgO, suggesting that higher viscosity magmas do not form lava bubbles. The dissolved CO2 and H2O contents of 7 of the limu...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
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Shatter rings are circular to elliptical volcanic features, typically tens of meters in diameter, which form over active lava tubes. They are typified by an upraised rim of blocky rubble and a central depression. Prior to this study, shatter rings had not been observed forming, and, thus, were interpreted in many ways. This paper describes the process of formation for shatter rings observed at Kīlauea Volcano during November 2005–July 2006. During this period, tilt data, time-lapse images, and field observations showed that episodic tilt changes at the nearby Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō cone, the shallow magmatic source reservoir, were directly related to fluctuations in the level of lava in the active lava tube, with periods of...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
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A significant number of volcano-tectonic(VT) earthquake swarms, some of which are accompanied by ground deformation and/or volcanic gas emissions, do not culminate in an eruption.These swarms are often thought to represent stalled intrusions of magma into the mid- or shallow-level crust.Real-time assessment of the likelihood that a VTswarm will culminate in an eruption is one of the key challenges of volcano monitoring, and retrospective analysis of non-eruptive swarms provides an important framework for future assessments. Here we explore models for a non-eruptive VT earthquake swarm located beneath Iliamna Volcano, Alaska, in May 1996-June 1997 through calculation and inversion of fault-plane solutions for swarm...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
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The Campi Flegrei hosts numerous monogenetic vents inferred to be younger than the 15 ka Neapolitan Yellow Tuff. Sanidine crystals from the three young Campi Flegrei vents of Fondi di Baia, Bacoli and Nisida were dated using 40Ar/39Ar geochronology. These vents, together with several other young edifices, occur roughly along the inner border of the Campi Flegrei caldera, suggesting that the volcanic conduits are controlled by caldera-bounding faults. Plateau ages of ∼9.6 ka (Fondi di Baia), ∼8.6 ka (Bacoli) and ∼3.9 ka (Nisida) indicate eruptive activity during intervals previously interpreted as quiescent. A critical revision, involving calendar age correction of literature 14C data and available 40Ar/39Ar age...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology
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Although monogenetic volcanic fields pose hazards to major cities worldwide, their shallow magma feeders (<500 m depth) are rarely exposed and, therefore, poorly understood. Here, we investigate exposures of dikes and sills in the Hopi Buttes volcanic field, Arizona, to shed light on the nature of its magma feeder system. Shallow exposures reveal a transition zone between intrusion and eruption within 350 m of the syn-eruptive surface. Using a combination of field- and satellite-based observations, we have identified three types of shallow magma systems: (1) dike-dominated, (2) sill-dominated, and (3) interconnected dike-sill networks. Analysis of vent alignments using the pyroclastic massifs and other eruptive...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Bulletin of Volcanology


map background search result map search result map Lava tube shatter rings and their correlation with lava flux increases at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i Long-range hazard assessment of volcanic ash dispersal for a Plinian eruptive scenario at Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico): implications for civil aviation safety Lava tube shatter rings and their correlation with lava flux increases at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i Long-range hazard assessment of volcanic ash dispersal for a Plinian eruptive scenario at Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico): implications for civil aviation safety