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Crustal-scale seismic-velocity models across the Denali fault zone along the Richardson Highway show a 50-km-thick crust, a near vertical fault trace, and a 5-km-wide damage zone associated with the fault near Trans-Alaska Pipeline Pump Station 10, which provided the closest strong ground motion recordings of the 2002 Denali fault earthquake. We compare models, derived from seismic reflection and refraction surveys acquired in 1986 and 1987, to laboratory measurements of seismic velocities for typical metamorphic rocks exposed along the profiles. Our model for the 1986 seismic reflection profile indicates a 5-km-wide low-velocity zone in the upper 1 km of the Denali fault zone, which we interpret as fault gouge....
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Recent observations have shown that shear waves trapped within low-velocity fault zones may be the most sensitive measure of fault-zone structure (Li et al., 1994a, 1994b). Finite-difference simulations demonstrate the effects of several types of complexity on observations of fault-zone trapped waves. Overlying sediments with a thickness more than one or two fault-zone widths and fault-zone step-overs more than one or two fault widths disrupt the wave guide. Fault kinks and changes in fault-zone width with depth leave readily observable trapped waves. We also demonstrate the effects of decreased trapped wave excitation with increasing hypocentral offset from the fault and the effects of varying the contrast between...
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Using a magnitude (M)-log area (A) dataset augmented with seven large (M > 7.0) earthquakes occurring since Wells and Coppersmith (1994), this short note assesses the current validity of the bilinear M-log A relations for continental, strike-slip earthquakes proposed by Hanks and Bakun (2002), in particular the L-model scaling at M > 7. The relations determined by Hanks and Bakun (2002) are only insignificantly altered, leaving these bilinear M-log A relations as valid now as when first proposed.
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We estimate locations and moment magnitudes M and their uncertainties for the three largest events in the 1811-1812 sequence near New Madrid, Missouri, and for the 1 September 1886 event near Charleston, South Carolina. The intensity magnitude M1, our preferred estimate of M, is 7.6 for the 16 December 1811 event that occurred in the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) on the Bootheel lineament or on the Blytheville seismic zone. M1, is 7.5 for the 23 January 1812 event for a location on the New Madrid north zone of the NMSZ and 7.8 for the 7 February 1812 event that occurred on the Reelfoot blind thrust of the NMSZ. Our preferred locations for these events are located on those NMSZ segments preferred by Johnston and...
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Mammoth Mountain is a 50 000- to 200 000-yr-old cumulovolcano standing on the southwestern rim of Long Valley in eastern California. On 4 May 1989, two M=1 earthquakes beneath the south flank of the mountain marked the onset of a swarm that has continued for more than 6 months. In addition to its longevity, noteworthy aspects of this persistent swarm are described. These aspects of the swarm, together with its location along the southern extension of the youthful Mono-Inyo volcanic chain, which last erupted 500 to 600 yr ago, point to a magmatic source for the modest but persistent influx of strain energy into the crust beneath Mammoth Mountain. -from Authors
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The extent to which faults exhibit temporally varying slip rates has important consequences for models of fault mechanics and probabilistic seismic hazard. Here, we explore the temporal behavior of the dextral‐slip Warm Springs Valley fault system, which is part of a network of closely spaced (10–20 km) faults in the northern Walker Lane (California–Nevada border). We develop a late Quaternary slip record for the fault using Quaternary mapping and high‐resolution topographic data from airborne Light Distance and Ranging (LiDAR). The faulted Fort Sage alluvial fan (40.06° N, 119.99° W) is dextrally displaced 98+42/-43 m, and we estimate the age of the alluvial fan to be 41.4+10.0/-4.8 to 55.7±9.2  ka, based on a...
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In the classic microseismic band of 5-20 sec, seismic noise consists mainly of fundamental mode Rayleigh and Love waves; however, at shorter periods seismic noise also contains a significant amount of body-wave energy and higher mode surface waves. In this study we perform a global survey of Earth's short-period seismic noise field with the goal of quantifying the relative contributions of these propagation modes. We examined a year's worth of vertical component data from 18 seismic arrays of the International Monitoring System that were sited in a variety of geologic environments. The apertures of the arrays varied from 2 to 28 km, constraining the periods we analyzed to 0.25-2.5 sec. Using frequency-wavenumber...
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An M 6.7 intermediate-depth (66 km), in-slab earthquake occurring near the island of Kythera in Greece on 8 January 2006 was well recorded on networks of stations equipped with acceleration sensors and with broadband velocity sensors. All data were recorded digitally using recording instruments with resolutions ranging from almost 11 to 24 bits. We use data from these networks to study the distance dependence of the horizontal-component Fourier acceleration spectra (FAS) and horizontal-component pseudoabsolute response spectral acceleration (PSA). For purposes of simulating motions in the future, we parameterize the distance decay using several forms of the geometrical-spreading function, for each of which we derive...
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For more than 20 years, a program has been underway to obtain records of earthquake shaking on the seafloor at sites offshore of southern California, near oil platforms. The primary goal of the program is to obtain data that can help determine if ground motions at offshore sites are significantly different than those at onshore sites; if so, caution may be necessary in using onshore motions as the basis for the seismic design of oil platforms. We analyze data from eight earthquakes recorded at six offshore sites; these are the most important data recorded on these stations to date. Seven of the earthquakes were recorded at only one offshore station; the eighth event was recorded at two sites. The earthquakes range...
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We describe a multipart study to quantify the potential ground-shaking hazard to Joes Valley Dam, a 58-m-high earthfill dam, posed by mining-induced seismicity (MIS) from future underground coal mining, which could approach as close as ???1 km to the dam. To characterize future MIS close to the dam, we studied MIS located ???3-7 km from the dam at the Trail Mountain coal mine. A 12-station local seismic network (11 stations above ground, one below, combining eight triaxial accelerometers and varied velocity sensors) was operated in the Trail Mountain area from late 2000 through mid-2001 for the dual purpose of (1) continuously monitoring and locating MIS associated with longwall mining at a depth of 0.5-0.6 km and...
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Residual displacements for large earthquakes can sometimes be determined from recordings on modern digital instruments, but baseline offsets of unknown origin make it difficult in many cases to do so. To recover the residual displacement, we suggest tailoring a correction scheme by studying the character of the velocity obtained by integration of zeroth-order-corrected acceleration and then seeing if the residual displacements are stable when the various parameters in the particular correction scheme are varied. For many seismological and engineering purposes, however, the residual displacement are of lesser importance than ground motions at periods less than about 20 sec. These ground motions are often recoverable...
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Comparisons of ground motions from two widely used point-source and finite-source ground-motion simulation programs (SMSIM and EXSIM) show that the following simple modifications in EXSIM will produce agreement in the motions from a small earthquake at a large distance for the two programs: (1) base the scaling of high frequencies on the integral of the squared Fourier acceleration spectrum; (2) do not truncate the time series from each subfault; (3) use the inverse of the subfault corner frequency for the duration of motions from each subfault; and (4) use a filter function to boost spectral amplitudes at frequencies near and less than the subfault corner frequencies. In addition, for SMSIM an effective distance...
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This article has the modest goal of comparing the ground motions recorded during the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, mainshock with predictions from four empirical-based equations commonly used for western North America; these empirical predictions are largely based on data from California. Comparisons are made for peak acceleration and 5%-damped response spectra at periods between 0.1 and 4 sec. The general finding is that the Chi-Chi ground motions are smaller than those predicted from the empirically based equations for periods less than about 1 sec by factors averaging about 0.4 but as small as 0.26 (depending on period, on which equation is used, and on whether the sites are assumed to be rock or soil). There is a trend...
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Crustal velocity structure for the region near Coalinga, California, has been derived from both earthquake and explosion seismic phase data recorded along a NW-SE seismic-refraction profile on the western flank of the Great Valley east of the Diablo Range. Comparison of the two data sets reveals P-wave phases in common which can be correlated with changes in the velocity structure below the earthquake hypocenters. In addition, the earthquake records reveal secondary phases at station ranges of less than 20 km that could be the result of S- to P-wave conversions at velocity interfaces above the earthquake hypocenters. Two-dimensional ray-trace modeling of the P-wave travel times resulted in a P-wave velocity model...
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The paucity of strong-motion stations near the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake makes it impossible to make instrumental studies of key questions about near-fault strong-motion patterns associated with this event. However, observations of displaced rocks allow a qualitative investigation of these problems. By observing the slope of the desert surface and the frictional coefficient between these rocks and the desert surface, we estimate the minimum horizontal acceleration needed to displace the rocks. Combining this information with observations of how many rocks were displaced in different areas near the fault, we infer the level of shaking. Given current empirical shaking attenuation relationships, the number of rocks...
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We assess two competing dynamic interpretations that have been proposed for the short slip durations characteristic of kinematic earthquake models derived by inversion of earthquake waveform and geodetic data. The first interpretation would require a fault constitutive relationship in which rapid dynamic restrengthening of the fault surface occurs after passage of the rupture front, a hypothesized mechanical behavior that has been referred to as "self-healing." The second interpretation would require sufficient spatial heterogeneity of stress drop to permit rapid equilibration of elastic stresses with the residual dynamic friction level, a condition we refer to as "geometrical constraint." These interpretations...
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The average velocity to 30 m [V??s(30)] is a widely used parameter for classifying sites to predict their potential to amplify seismic shaking. In many cases, however, models of shallow shear-wave velocities, from which V??s(30) can be computed, do not extend to 30 m. If the data for these cases are to be used, some method of extrapolating the velocities must be devised. Four methods for doing this are described here and are illustrated using data from 135 boreholes in California for which the velocity model extends to at least 30 m. Methods using correlations between shallow velocity and V??s(30) result in significantly less bias for shallow models than the simplest method of assuming that the lowermost velocity...
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We compute ground motions for the Beroza (1991) and Wald et al. (1991) source models of the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake using four different wave-propagation codes and recently developed 3D geologic and seismic velocity models. In preparation for modeling the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, we use this well-recorded earthquake to characterize how well our ground-motion simulations reproduce the observed shaking intensities and amplitude and durations of recorded motions throughout the San Francisco Bay Area. All of the simulations generate ground motions consistent with the large-scale spatial variations in shaking associated with rupture directivity and the geologic structure. We attribute the small...
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Approximately 3.6 km of P-wave seismic-reflection data were acquired along two orthogonal profiles in Sherman Oaks, California to determine whether shallow (less than 1-km depth) geologic structures contributed to the dramatic localized damage resulting from the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Both lines, one along Matilija Avenue and one along Milbank Street, crossed areas of both high and low damage. We believe these data reveal a geologic structure in the upper 600 m that contributed to the increased earthquake ground shaking in the high-damage areas south of and along the Los Angeles River. Of interest in these data is a reflection interpreted to be from bedrock that can be traced to the north along the Matilija...


map background search result map search result map Late quaternary slip-rate variations along the Warm Springs Valley fault system, northern Walker Lane, California-Nevada border Late quaternary slip-rate variations along the Warm Springs Valley fault system, northern Walker Lane, California-Nevada border