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Long Valley Caldera in eastern California formed 0.76 Ma ago in a cataclysmic eruption that resulted in the deposition of 600 km3 of Bishop Tuff. The total current heat flow from the caldera floor is estimated to be ~ 290 MW, and a geothermal power plant in Casa Diablo on the flanks of the resurgent dome (RD) generates ~40 MWe. The RD in the center of the caldera was uplifted by ~ 80 cm between 1980 and 1999 and was explained by most models as a response to magma intrusion into the shallow crust. This unrest has led to extensive research on geothermal resources and volcanic hazards in the caldera. Here we present results from precise, high-resolution, temperature–depth profiles in five deep boreholes (327–1,158...
Although giant calderas (“supervolcanoes”) may slumber for tens of thousands of years between eruptions, their abundant earthquakes and crustal deformation reveal the potential for future upheaval. Any eventual supereruption could devastate global human populations, so these systems must be carefully scrutinized. Insight into dormant but restless calderas can be gained by monitoring their output of heat and gas. At Yellowstone, the large thermal and CO2 fluxes require massive input of basaltic magma, which continues to invade the lower to mid-crust, sustains the overlying high-silica magma reservoir, and may result in volcanic hazard for millennia to come. The high flux of CO2 may contribute to the measured deformation...
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Okmok volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, explosively erupted over a five-week period between July 12 and August 23, 2008. The eruption was predominantly phreatomagmatic, producing fine-grained tephra that covered most of northeastern Umnak Island. The eruption had a maximum Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 4, with eruption column heights up to 16 km during the opening phase. Several craters and a master tuff cone formed in the caldera as a result of phreatomagmatic explosions and accumulated tephra-fall and surge deposits. Ascending magma continuously interacted with an extensive shallow groundwater table in the caldera, resulting in the phreatomagmatic character of the eruption. Syneruptive explosion and collapse...
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Kasatochi is a small, isolated island volcano in the center of the Aleutian Island chain. It consists of a roughly circular cone approximately 3 km in diameter with a lake-filled central crater that is 1.2 km in diameter and extends from the highest point on the island to sea level. The oldest unit recognized is a thick series of mid-Pleistocene glaciovolcanic deposits consisting of autobrecciated lava, lahars, and volumetrically minor lava masses that we believe to have been emplaced underneath a regional ice cap. This unit is unconformably overlain by several massive Holocene lavas, above which lies a thick sequence of latest-Holocene pyroclastic deposits likely deposited during the crater-forming eruption. The...
Inflation and deflation of large calderas is traditionally interpreted as being induced by volume change of a discrete source embedded in an elastic or viscoelastic half-space, though it has also been suggested that hydrothermal fluids may play a role. To test the latter hypothesis, we carry out numerical simulations of hydrothermal fluid flow and poroelastic deformation in calderas by coupling two numerical codes: (1) TOUGH2 [Pruess et al., 1999], which simulates flow in porous or fractured media, and (2) BIOT2 [Hsieh, 1996], which simulates fluid flow and deformation in a linearly elastic porous medium. In the simulations, high-temperature water (350°C) is injected at variable rates into a cylinder (radius 50...
Ground surface displacement (GSD) in large calderas is often interpreted as resulting from magma intrusion at depth. Recent advances in geodetic measurements of GSD, notably interferometric synthetic aperture radar, reveal complex and multifaceted deformation patterns that often require complex source models to explain the observed GSD. Although hydrothermal fluids have been discussed as a possible deformation agent, very few quantitative studies addressing the effects of multiphase flow on crustal mechanics have been attempted. Recent increases in the power and availability of computing resources allow robust quantitative assessment of the complex time‐variant thermal interplay between aqueous fluid flow and crustal...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: hydrothermal, model, caldera
Inflation and deflation of large calderas is traditionally interpreted as being induced by volume change of a discrete source embedded in an elastic or viscoelastic half-space, though it has also been suggested that hydrothermal fluids may play a role. To test the latter hypothesis, we carry out numerical simulations of hydrothermal fluid flow and poroelastic deformation in calderas by coupling two numerical codes: (1) TOUGH2 [Pruess et al., 1999], which simulates flow in porous or fractured media, and (2) BIOT2 [Hsieh, 1996], which simulates fluid flow and deformation in a linearly elastic porous medium. In the simulations, high-temperature water (350°C) is injected at variable rates into a cylinder (radius 50...
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Fisher volcano, containing the largest Holocene caldera in the Aleutian volcanic arc, is an active volcano near the center of Unimak Island, about 120 kilometers southwest of Cold Bay and about 175 kilometers northeast of Dutch Harbor. The volcano is composed of numerous small volcanic centers around and within a large, oval caldera 12 by 18 kilometers in diameter and 500 to 1,000 meters deep that formed during a catastrophic eruption about 9,400 years ago. Since then, more than 30 separate vents inside and outside the caldera have erupted; the most recent eruption occurred in 1826. These eruptions have produced lava flows and widespread tephra (volcanic ash) deposits, and have occasionally been accompanied by large...
Ground surface displacement (GSD) in large calderas is often interpreted as resulting from magma intrusion at depth. Recent advances in geodetic measurements of GSD, notably interferometric synthetic aperture radar, reveal complex and multifaceted deformation patterns that often require complex source models to explain the observed GSD. Although hydrothermal fluids have been discussed as a possible deformation agent, very few quantitative studies addressing the effects of multiphase flow on crustal mechanics have been attempted. Recent increases in the power and availability of computing resources allow robust quantitative assessment of the complex time‐variant thermal interplay between aqueous fluid flow and crustal...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: hydrothermal, model, caldera
The distribution of groundwater beneath Masaya Volcano, in Nicaragua, and its surrounding caldera was characterized using the transient electromagnetic method (TEM). Multiple soundings were conducted at 30 sites. Models of the TEM data consistently indicate a resistive layer that is underlain by one or more conductive layers. These two layers represent the unsaturated and saturated zones, respectively, with the boundary between them indicating the water-table elevation. A map of the TEM data shows that the water table in the caldera is a subdued replica of the topography, with higher elevations beneath the edifice in the south-central caldera and lower elevations in the eastern caldera, coinciding with the elevation...
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This Raw Data File presents major-oxide glass geochemical results from the ca. 3.6 ka caldera-forming eruption of Aniakchak volcano, Alaska. These data are part of a larger effort to identify and characterize tephra deposits from the largest eruptions in Alaska for use as geochronological marker horizons. Aniakchak is one of at least 29 volcanoes in Alaska that has had multiple large tephra-producing eruptions. Other deposit and sample metadata including geospatial distributions of this tephra deposit are held in the Alaska Volcano Observatory's online database, the Geologic Database of Information on Volcanoes in Alaska (GeoDIVA), and will be linked to these new geochemical data once published. Products included...
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Kasatochi is a small, isolated island volcano in the center of the Aleutian Island chain. It consists of a roughly circular cone approximately 3 km in diameter with a lake-filled central crater that is 1.2 km in diameter and extends from the highest point on the island to sea level. The oldest unit recognized is a thick series of mid-Pleistocene glaciovolcanic deposits consisting of autobrecciated lava, lahars, and volumetrically minor lava masses that we believe to have been emplaced underneath a regional ice cap. This unit is unconformably overlain by several massive Holocene lavas, above which lies a thick sequence of latest-Holocene pyroclastic deposits likely deposited during the crater-forming eruption. The...


    map background search result map search result map Geologic Map of the Tularosa Mountains 30� � 60� Quadrangle, Catron County, New Mexico Generalized Geologic Map of the Upper Animas River Watershed and Vicinity, Silverton, Colorado Geology of Kasatochi volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska Geology of Kasatochi volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska Major-element glass compositions of tephra from the circa 3.6 ka eruption of Aniakchak volcano, Alaska Peninsula, Alaska Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Fisher volcano, Unimak Island, Alaska The 2008 phreatomagmatic eruption of Okmok Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska: Chronology, deposits, and landform changes Geology of Kasatochi volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska Geology of Kasatochi volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska Generalized Geologic Map of the Upper Animas River Watershed and Vicinity, Silverton, Colorado Geologic Map of the Tularosa Mountains 30� � 60� Quadrangle, Catron County, New Mexico The 2008 phreatomagmatic eruption of Okmok Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska: Chronology, deposits, and landform changes Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Fisher volcano, Unimak Island, Alaska