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A monthly snow accumulation and melt model was used with monthly Precipitation-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) temperature and precipitation data to generate time series of 1 April snow water equivalent (SWE) for 1900 through 2008 in the western United States. Averaged across the western United States, SWE generally was higher than long-term (1900?2008) average conditions during the periods 1900?25, 1944?55, and 1966?82; SWE was lower than long-term average conditions during the periods 1926?43, 1957?65, and 1984?2008. During the period 1900?2008, the temporal pattern in winter precipitation exhibited wetter-than-average and drier-than-average decadal-scale periods with no long-term increasing...
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The study presented here utilized long-term streamflow records (over 500 years) to investigate the influence of interannual/interdecadal climate variability on the Colorado River basin. 19 unimpaired water year streamflow stations were reconstructed utilizing partial least square regression using standard tree ring chronologies. The spatial and temporal variability of drought was evaluated for all the stations for the different centuries in the record. Finally, the relationship between individual impact of ENSO, PDO, and AMO and its combined effect on streamflow was determined using the non parametric Rank Sum test for different lag years (0, +1, +2, and +3) of streamflow. This research also determined the change...
The dominant characteristics of wave energy variability in the eastern North Pacific are described from NOAA National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoy data collected from 1981 to 2003. Ten buoys at distributed locations were selected for comparison based on record duration and data continuity. Long-period (LP) [T > 12] s, intermediate-period [6 ≤ T ≤ 12] s, and short-period [T < 6] s wave spectral energy components are considered separately. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analyses of monthly wave energy anomalies reveal that all three wave energy components exhibit similar patterns of spatial variability. The dominant mode represents coherent heightened (or diminished) wave energy along the West Coast from Alaska...
Global synthesis of the findings from �140 recharge study areas in semiarid and arid regions provides important information on recharge rates, controls, and processes, which are critical for sustainable water development. Water resource evaluation, dryland salinity assessment (Australia), and radioactive waste disposal (US) are among the primary goals of many of these recharge studies. The chloride mass balance (CMB) technique is widely used to estimate recharge. Average recharge rates estimated over large areas (40?374 000 km2) range from 0�2 to 35 mm year1, representing 0�1?5% of long-term average annual precipitation. Extreme local variability in recharge, with rates up to �720 m year1, results from focussed...
Climate over the watershed of the San Francisco Bay Delta estuary system varies on a wide range of space and time scales, and affects downstream estuarine ecosystems. The historical climate has included mild to severe droughts and torrential rains accompanied by flooding, providing important lessons for present-day resource managers. Paleoclimate records spanning the last 10,000 years, synthesized across the Estuary, watershed and key regions beyond, provide a basis for increased understanding of how variable California’s climate can be and how it affects the Bay Delta system. This review of paleoclimate records reveals a gradual warming and drying in California from about 10,000 years to about 4,000 years before...


map background search result map search result map Associations of interdecadal/interannual climate variability and long-term colorado river basin streamflow Associations of interdecadal/interannual climate variability and long-term colorado river basin streamflow