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This dataset is the largest global dataset to date of soil respiration, moisture, and temperature measurements, totaling >3800 observations representing 27 temperature manipulation studies, spanning nine biomes and nearly two decades of warming experiments. Data for this study were obtained from a combination of unpublished data and published literature values. We find that although warming increases soil respiration rates, there is limited evidence for a shifting respiration response with experimental warming. We also note a universal decline in the temperature sensitivity of respiration at soil temperatures >25°C. This dataset includes 3817 observations, from control (n=1812), first (i.e., lowest or sole) level...
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The National Forest Management Act (NFMA) of 1976 requires every national forest or grassland managed by the U.S. Forest Service to develop and maintain a Land and Resource Management Plan (often referred to as a forest plan). The forest plan is the principle long-range guidance document for each forest or grassland, providing direction for project and activity decision making. Forest plans articulate goals and objectives, the kinds of uses that are suitable for areas of a national forest, management standards and guidelines that apply to different kinds of activities, and the designation of special areas like Research Natural Areas. Forest plans are strategic in nature and do not compel any action or authorize...
Carbon and nitrogen are supplied by a variety of sources in the desert food web; both vascular and non-vascular plants and cyanobacteria supply carbon, and cyanobacteria and plant-associated rhizosphere bacteria are sources of biological nitrogen fixation. The objective of this study was to compare the relative influence of vascular plants and biological soil crusts on desert soil nematode and protozoan abundance and community composition. In the first experiment, biological soil crusts were removed by physical trampling. Treatments with crust removed had fewer nematodes and a greater relative ratio of bacterivores to microphytophages than treatments with intact crust. However, protozoa composition was similar with...
This data set contains imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP). The NAIP program is administered by USDA FSA and has been established to support two main FSA strategic goals centered on agricultural production. These are increase stewardship of America's natural resources while enhancing the environment, and to ensure commodities are procured and distributed effectively and efficiently to increase food security. The NAIP program supports these goals by acquiring and providing ortho imagery that has been collected during the agricultural growing season in the U.S. The NAIP ortho imagery is tailored to meet FSA requirements and is a fundamental tool used to support FSA farm and conservation programs....
The deserts of the Southwest are under increasing pressure from growing human populations for land development - for cities, agriculture, livestock grazing, transportation and utility corridors, power plants, military activities, mining, and recreation. While some anthropogenic activities were initiated in the mid-1800s and have continued to present day, others are relatively new. The cumulative effects of historic and recent anthropogenic activities on natural resources have been both local and regional in scope. In addition, natural processes, such as local weather and global climate change, exert important influences on the landscape.
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This data set contains imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP). The NAIP program is administered by USDA FSA and has been established to support two main FSA strategic goals centered on agricultural production. These are, increase stewardship of America's natural resources while enhancing the environment, and to ensure commodities are procured and distributed effectively and efficiently to increase food security. The NAIP program supports these goals by acquiring and providing ortho imagery that has been collected during the agricultural growing season in the U.S. The NAIP ortho imagery is tailored to meet FSA requirements and is a fundamental tool used to support FSA farm and conservation programs....
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This data set contains imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP). The NAIP program is administered by USDA FSA and has been established to support two main FSA strategic goals centered on agricultural production. These are, increase stewardship of America's natural resources while enhancing the environment, and to ensure commodities are procured and distributed effectively and efficiently to increase food security. The NAIP program supports these goals by acquiring and providing ortho imagery that has been collected during the agricultural growing season in the U.S. The NAIP ortho imagery is tailored to meet FSA requirements and is a fundamental tool used to support FSA farm and conservation programs....
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The cold deserts of the Colorado Plateau contain numerous geologically and geochemically distinct sedimentary bedrock types. In the area near Canyonlands National Park in Southeastern Utah, geochemical variation in geologic substrates is related to the depositional environment with higher concentrations of Fe, Al, P, K, and Mg in sediments deposited in alluvial or marine environments and lower concentrations in bedrock derived from eolian sand dunes. Availability of soil nutrients to vegetation is also controlled by the formation of secondary minerals, particularly for P and Ca availability, which, in some geologic settings, appears closely related to variation of CaCO3 and Ca-phosphates in soils. However, the results...
Composite soil samples from 7 sites on San Nicolas Island were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively for the presence of cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae. Combined data demonstrated a rich algal flora with 19 cyanobacterial and 19 eukaryotic microalgal genera being identified, for a total of 56 species. Nine new species were identified and described among the cyanobacteria and the eukaryotic microalgae that were isolated: Leibleinia edaphica, Aphanothece maritima, Chroococcidiopsis edaphica, Cyanosarcina atroveneta, Hassallia californica, Hassallia pseudoramosissima, Microchaete terrestre, Palmellopsis californicus, and Pseudotetracystis compactis. Distinct distributional patterns of algal taxa existed...
Greenhouse experiments were undertaken to identify soil factors that curtail growth of the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass) without significantly inhibiting growth of native perennial grasses (here represented by Hilaria jamesii [Torr.] Benth). We grew B. tectorum and H. jamesii alone (monoculture pots) and together (combination pots) in soil treatments that manipulated levels of soil phosphorus, potassium, and sodium. Hilaria jamesii showed no decline when its aboveground biomass in any of the applied treatments was compared to the control in either the monoculture or combination pots. Monoculture pots of B. tectorum showed a decline in aboveground biomass with the addition of Na2HPO4 and K2HPO4....
Archaea are common and abundant members of biological soil crust communities across large-scale biogeographic provinces of arid North America. Regardless of microbial community development, archaeal populations averaged 2 � 107 16S rRNA gene copies per gram of soil, representing around 5% of the prokaryotic (total calculated bacterial and archaeal) numbers assessed by quantitative-PCR. In contrast, archaeal diversity, determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting and clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes, was very restricted. Only six different phylotypes (all Crenarchaea) were detected, three of which were very dominant. Some phylotypes were widespread, while others were typical of Southern desert...
This data set contains imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP). The NAIP program is administered by USDA FSA and has been established to support two main FSA strategic goals centered on agricultural production. These are increase stewardship of America's natural resources while enhancing the environment, and to ensure commodities are procured and distributed effectively and efficiently to increase food security. The NAIP program supports these goals by acquiring and providing ortho imagery that has been collected during the agricultural growing season in the U.S. The NAIP ortho imagery is tailored to meet FSA requirements and is a fundamental tool used to support FSA farm and conservation programs....
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Percent of ecoregion area covered with desert and aridland habitat. We derived the aridlands map by first developing a raster-based mask of arid climates from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification (Kottek et al. 2006) using ArcInfo GIS software. We applied the mask to the GLC 2000 global land cover, and then extracted sparse vegetation classes. For example, pockets of forested land occurring within Köppen-Geiger arid climate regions were excluded. Areas of human habitation and infrastructure were also removed from the map, leaving only natural desert lands. Finally, we applied a zonal sum procedure to the raster map to calculate the percentage of arid land per ecoregion. These data were derived by The Nature...
Bouteloua gracilis (Kunth) Lag. ex Griffiths (blue grama), Bouteloua eriopoda (Torr.) Torr. (black grama), and Larrea tridentata Coville (creosotebush) are dominant plants on the McKenzie Flats portion of the Llano de Manzano landform within Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in central New Mexico, part of the biome ecotone from the Colorado Shortgrass Steppe to the Chihuahuan Desert. In this study, we examine the hypothesis that soil heterogeneity, determined by variation in surface soil depth, carbonate accumulation, and fine-textured fraction, controls relative dominance of the three species. The area is flat, generally <1% slope; however, abrupt soil differences exist even within the flattest parts of the landscape...
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Seedlings of the succulent crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM plant Agave deserti in the northwestern Sonoran Desert were found only in sheltered microhabitats, nearly all occurring under the canopy of a desert bunchgrass, Hilaria rigida. Apparently because soil surface temperatures can reach 71@?C in exposed areas, seedlings were generally located near the center or on the northern side of this nurse plant. Both species have shallow root systems, about half of the roots of H. rigida and all those for seedlings of A. deserti occurring above soil depths of 0.08 m. To examine competition for water between the nurse plant and an associated seedling, a three-dimensional model for root water uptake was developed. The...
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The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Park Service (NPS) Vegetation Characterization Program initiated a project at Joshua Tree National Park (JOTR or Park) in 1996 to classify, describe, and map the vegetation communities of the Park. The project, including the final map, classification, and report, was completed in 2012. Initial mapping, photo-interpretation, and field work was conducted between 1996 and 2005. Final reports for these efforts were generated by 2005, including a map, ecological descriptions, classification, key, and photo-interpretation guide. Following this, a total of 1,313 accuracy assessments were conducted in 2007 and 2008, the results of which spurred additional field relev�s...
The cold deserts of the Colorado Plateau contain numerous geologically and geochemically distinct sedimentary bedrock types. In the area near Canyonlands National Park in Southeastern Utah, geochemical variation in geologic substrates is related to the depositional environment with higher concentrations of Fe, Al, P, K, and Mg in sediments deposited in alluvial or marine environments and lower concentrations in bedrock derived from eolian sand dunes. Availability of soil nutrients to vegetation is also controlled by the formation of secondary minerals, particularly for P and Ca availability, which, in some geologic settings, appears closely related to variation of CaCO3 and Ca-phosphates in soils. However, the results...


map background search result map search result map Controls of Bedrock Geochemistry on Soil and Plant Nutrients in Southeastern Utah Interactions Between Seedlings of Agave Deserti and the Nurse Plant Hilaria Rigida Percent Aridland Area by Terrestrial Ecoregion Joshua Tree National Park Vegetation Mapping Project - Spatial Vegetation Data Map of Centroid Consolidated Mines Group Plat of T7N R12W Showing Centroid Consolidated Mines Group United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Southwestern Region Plan Revision FSA 10:1 NAIP Imagery m_3210655_ne_13_1_20141004_20141030 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map FSA 10:1 NAIP Imagery m_3210655_nw_13_1_20141004_20141030 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map FSA 10:1 NAIP Imagery m_3911062_nw_12_1_20160722_20161017 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map FSA 10:1 NAIP Imagery m_3911062_sw_12_1_20160722_20161017 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map FSA 10:1 NAIP Imagery m_3210655_ne_13_1_20141004_20141030 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map FSA 10:1 NAIP Imagery m_3210655_nw_13_1_20141004_20141030 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map FSA 10:1 NAIP Imagery m_3911062_nw_12_1_20160722_20161017 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map FSA 10:1 NAIP Imagery m_3911062_sw_12_1_20160722_20161017 3.75 x 3.75 minute JPEG2000 from The National Map Interactions Between Seedlings of Agave Deserti and the Nurse Plant Hilaria Rigida Controls of Bedrock Geochemistry on Soil and Plant Nutrients in Southeastern Utah Joshua Tree National Park Vegetation Mapping Project - Spatial Vegetation Data United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Southwestern Region Plan Revision Percent Aridland Area by Terrestrial Ecoregion