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The isotopic composition of lead and the concentrations of lead, uranium, and thorium in Delegate basic pipes from Australia and in South African kimberlite pipes have been determined. The observed 238U/204Pb and observed 232Th/238U of eclogite inclusions in the pipes range from 2.9 to 18.7 and from 3.5 to 5.9, respectively. This result as well as the isotopic composition of lead suggests that the upper mantle is chemically heterogeneous with regard to the trace elements. Pyrochemically extracted leads from eclogite inclusions in the Delegate basic pipes and in a South African kimberlite pipe appear to be different in isotopic compositions from leads extracted from the host rock (matrix). These data are consistent...
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Amphibolites associated with alpine peridotites in the Central Ophiolite zone in Yugoslavia have K-Ar ages of 160-170 m.y. These amphibolites and associated peridotites underwent deep-seated metamorphism prior to tectonic emplacement into the sedimentary-volcanic assemblage of the Dinarides. The alpine peridotites and associated local rocks of the ophiolite suite are interpreted as Jurassic oceanic crust and upper mantle. ?? 1975.
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Enantiomeric measurements for aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and alanine in twenty-one different fossil bone samples have been carried out by three different laboratories using different analytical methods. These inter-laboratory comparisons demonstrate that D/L aspartic acid measurements are highly reproducible, whereas the enantiomeric measurements for the other amino acids show a wide variation between the three laboratories. At present, aspartic acid measurements are the most suitable for racemization dating of bone because of their superior analytical precision. ?? 1979.
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The Mo??ssbauer spectrum of staurolite does not necessarily indicate that ferrous iron is distributed over both the tetrahedral Fe site and one or more of the octahedral sites, as previously thought. Two doublets are present in the spectrum, but their quadrupole spliting and isomer shift are more consistent with both being due to tetrahedrally coordinated ferrous iron. Smith's X-ray work has shown that cations in the Fe site actually assume several slightly different positions, and iron in each of these positions may give rise to a different Mo??ssbauer doublet. ?? 1972.
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Basalts being erupted in the Pacific Ocean Basin vary in Sr isotopic composition in a simple geographic pattern. 87Sr/86Sr increases away from the East Pacific Rise to very high values for islands in the south-central Pacific. The 87Sr/86Sr variations are almost certainly related to past segregation of Rb, K, and other large cations. The segregation process was probably incipient partial melting which resulted in various mantle zones being enriched or depleted. ?? 1978.
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To assess the environmental perturbation induced by the impact event that marks the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary, concentrations and isotopic compositions of bulk organic carbon were determined in sedimentary rocks that span the terrestrial K-T boundary at Dogie Creek, Montana, and Brownie Butte, Wyoming in the Western Interior of the United States. The boundary clays at both sites are not bounded by coals. Although coals consist mainly of organic matter derived from plant tissue, siliceous sedimentary rocks, such as shale and clay, may contain organic matter derived from microbiota as well as plants. Coals record ??13C values of plant-derived organic matter, reflecting the ??13C value of atmospheric CO2,...
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Enstatite achondrites (aubrites) were not derived from known enstatite chondrites by melting and fractionation on one and the same parent body, for these and other reasons: (1) There is no satisfactory mechanism for fractionating metal plus troilite in enstatite chondrites to form these phases in different proportions and with different Ti contents in aubrites. (2) Many enstatite chondrites and aubrites are regolith or fragmental breccias, but clasts of one within the other have not been found. (3) Cosmic ray exposure ages of the two groups are difficult to explain if they are from the same parent body, but are easy to explain if they are from different parent bodies. Siderophile element abundances in metal from...
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Sediments of the Wilson Creek Formation surrounding Mono Lake preserve a high-resolution archive of glacial and pluvial responses along the eastern Sierra Nevada due to late Pleistocene climate change. An absolute chronology for the Wilson Creek stratigraphy is critical for correlating the paleoclimate record to other archives in the western U.S. and the North Atlantic region. However, multiple attempts to date the Wilson Creek stratigraphy using carbonates and tephras yield discordant results due to open-system effects and radiocarbon reservoir uncertainties as well as abundant xenocrysts. New ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of the final increments of crystallization recorded by allanite and zircon autocrysts...
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Oceanic spreading ridges are Earth's most productive crust generating environment, but mechanisms and rates of crustal accretion and heat loss are debated. Existing observations on cooling rates are ambiguous regarding the prevalence of conductive vs. convective cooling of lower oceanic crust. Here, we report the discovery and dating of zircon in mid-ocean ridge dacite lavas that constrain magmatic differentiation and cooling rates at an active spreading center. Dacitic lavas erupted on the southern Cleft segment of the Juan de Fuca ridge, an intermediate-rate spreading center, near the intersection with the Blanco transform fault. Their U–Th zircon crystallization ages (29.3-4.6+4.8 ka; 1δ standard error s.e.)...
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Aseismic or slow slip events have been observed in many subduction zones, but whether they affect the occurrence of earthquakes or result from stress changes caused by nearby events is unclear. In an area lacking direct geodetic observations, inferences can be made from seismological studies of co-seismic slip, associated stress changes and the spatiotemporal nature of aftershocks. These observations indicate that the February 2013 Mw 8.0 Santa Cruz Islands earthquake may have triggered slow or aseismic slip on an adjacent section of the subduction thrust over the following hours to days. This aseismic event was equivalent to Mw 7.6, significantly larger than any earthquakes in the aftershock sequence. The aseismic...
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A recent study by Schmidt et al. (2011) suggests that Thera Macula, one of the “chaos regions” on Europa, may be actively forming over a large liquid water lens. Such a process could conceivably produce a thermal anomaly detectable by a future Europa orbiter or flyby mission, allowing for a direct verification of this finding. Here, we present a set of models that quantitatively assess the surface and subsurface temperatures associated with an actively resurfacing chaos region using constraints from Thera Macula. The results of this numerical study suggest that the surface temperature over an active chaos region can be as high as ∼200 K. However, low-resolution Galileo Photo-Polarimeter Radiometer (PPR) observations...
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The purpose of this study is to (1) demonstrate the viability of detecting terrestrial caves at thermal-infrared wavelengths, (2) improve our understanding of terrestrial cave thermal behavior, (3) identify times of day when cave openings have the maximum thermal contrast with the surrounding surface regolith, and (4) further our understanding of how to detect caves on Earth, the Moon and Mars. We monitored the thermal behavior of two caves in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. Through this work, we identified times when temperature contrasts between entrance and surface were greatest, thus enabling us to suggest optimal overflight times. The largest thermal contrast for both caves occurred during mid-day. One...


map background search result map search result map High-resolution tephrochronology of the Wilson Creek Formation (Mono Lake, California) and Laschamp event using <sup>238</sup>U-<sup>230</sup>Th SIMS dating of accessory mineral rims Triggered aseismic slip adjacent to the 6 February 2013 Mw 8.0 Santa Cruz Islands megathrust earthquake High-resolution tephrochronology of the Wilson Creek Formation (Mono Lake, California) and Laschamp event using <sup>238</sup>U-<sup>230</sup>Th SIMS dating of accessory mineral rims Triggered aseismic slip adjacent to the 6 February 2013 Mw 8.0 Santa Cruz Islands megathrust earthquake