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wetland habitats throughout their annual cycles. Survival, reproduction, and growth are dependent on the availability of foods that meet nutritional requirements for recurring biological events. These requirements occur among a wide variety of environmental conditions that also influence nutritional demands. Recent work on nesting waterfowl has identified the female’s general nutrient needs for egg laying and incubation. Far less is known about nutritional requirements for molt and other portions of the life cycle, particularly those during the nonbreeding season. Although information on specific requirements for amino acids and micronutrients of wild birds is meager, the available information on waterfowl requirements...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fish and Wildlife Leaflet
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Redheads are one of five common diving duck species in North America. They are in the same taxonomic group as the pochards or bay ducks and are most similar in appearance and behavior to the canvasback. Smaller body size, late breeding, wintering in southern areas, and tolerance to salt in winter and in breeding areas differentiate the redhead from the canvasback and suggest an evolutionary origin in the arid areas of the West. Parasitism of other waterfowl nests is more pronounced in redheads than in other North American waterfowl. These and other aspects of the biology of the redhead are the subject of this leaflet. Readers who are interested in general references on redheads.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fish and Wildlife Leaflet
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No abstract available at this time
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fish and Wildlife Leaflet
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The black brant is a sea goose that depends on coastal habitats from high arctic nesting sites in Canada, Alaska, and Russia to wintering areas in the Pacific coastal states, the Baja California peninsula, and mainland Mexico estuaries. Population estimates are based on aerial surveys in Mexico, California, Oregon, and Washington during mid-winter. Despite much annual variability in estimates, a plot of the counts from 1964 to 1992 reveals a significant downward trend in the winter populations (Fig. 1). Three of four major colonies on the Yukon-Kuskokwim (Y-K) delta declined an average of 60% during the first half of the 1980’s. This is significant because about 79% of the world population of the black brant nest...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fish and Wildlife Leaflet
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Determination of lead poisoning problem areas is complicated by the nature of the disease process. Rigorous documentation of lead poisoning as a cause of mortality in birds requires the integration and evaluation of pathological and toxicological data by an experienced diagnostician. No single technique provides unequivocal proof that lead exposure occurred at the site of death. However, evaluation processes that integrate knowledge regarding the course of lead poisoning in birds, bird movement patterns in specific geographic areas, and findings from studies involving criteria commonly used to measure exposure to lead shot provide a sound basis for determination of specific problem areas. Sequential sampling during...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fish and Wildlife Leaflet
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Waterfowl that nest in uplands in the prairie pothole region have had low recruitment rates in recent decades, primarily because of predation. The loss of breeding waterfowl and their progeny has generated interest in management techniques that safeguard incubating hens and their eggs. Developing islands and peninsulas for nesting waterfowl has potential because these sites are naturally attractive to breeding ducks and geese. In fact, dense nesting colonies of ducks developed on some islands when successful females and a portion of their female progeny returned in subsequent years.Managers have successfully duplicated the beneficial attributes of islands by developing various nesting habitats that are protected...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fish and Wildlife Leaflet
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Human disturbances of waterfowl can be intentional or unintentional. They may result from overt or directed activities or may be ancillary to activities not initially thought to be of concern to birds. Some of these disturbances are manifested by alertness, fright (obvious or inapparent), flight, swimming, disablement, or death. Therefore, persons responsible for waterfowl management areas should be aware of the problems from human disturbance and should design management and facilities that increase public appreciation of waterfowl.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fish and Wildlife Leaflet
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Shorebirds have always relied on the extensive network of natural wetlands from Texas to North Dakota. This network has now been fractured by wetland drainage and agriculture to the point where suitable wetlands are absent in much of the Midwest. Habitat loss and the resulting risk of population decline highlight the importance of management of shorebirds on refuges, hunting clubs, and preserves for both breeding and migrating species.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fish and Wildlife Leaflet
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Between 25,000 and 30,000 playa lakes are in the playa lakes region of the southern high plains (Fig. 1). Most playas are in west Texas (about 20,000), and fewer, in New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Colorado. The playa lakes region is one of the most intensively cultivated areas of North America. Dominant crops range from cotton in southern areas to cereal grains in the north. Therefore, most of the native short-grass prairie is gone, replaced by crops and, recently, grasses of the Conservation Reserve Program. Playas are the predominant wetlands and major wildlife habitat of the region.More than 115 bird species, including 20 species of waterfowl, and 10 mammal species have been documented in playas. Waterfowl...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fish and Wildlife Leaflet
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Whirling disease is a parasitic infection of trout and salmon by the myxosporean protozoan Myxobolus cerebralis (Syn. Myxosoma cerebralis). This parasite has selective tropism for cartilage; infection can cause deformities of the axial skeleton and neural damage that results in 'blacktail.' The disease is named for the erratic, tail-chasing, 'whirling' in young fish that are startled or fed. Heavy infection of young fish can result in high mortalities or unmarketable, deformed individuals. Although the parasite was first reported in 1903 in central Europe (Hofer 1903), its complete life cycle was not described until the early 1980's.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fish and Wildlife Leaflet
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The North American Waterfowl Management Plan, the Service's most recent mandate for management of migratory waterfowl, and recent legislation such as the Farm Bill all underscore the need for a single source of information about the management of waterfowl and their habitat. Much of this information exists in scientific papers, unpublished reports, or has never been recorded, and thus is not readily accessible by waterfowl managers. A prototype handbook was developed in 1987 and critiqued by 38 reviewers who provided suggestions on style and substance as well as topics for inclusion. The assistance of these reviewers, who included Federal and State wildlife managers, Federal and State biologists, and scientists...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fish and Wildlife Leaflet
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Avian botulism is a paralytic, often fatal disease of birds resulting from ingestion of toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Waterfowl die-offs from the botulism are usually caused by type C toxin; sporadic die-offs among fish-eating birds, such as common loons (Gavia immer) and gulls, have been caused by type E toxin.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fish and Wildlife Leaflet
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No abstract available at this time
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fish and Wildlife Leaflet
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Lead poisoning is an intoxication resulting from absorption of hazardous levels of lead into body tissues. Lead pellets from shot shells, when ingested, are the most common source of lead poisoning in migratory birds. Other far less common sources include lead fishing sinkers, mine wastes, paint pigments, bullets, and other lead objects that are swallowed.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fish and Wildlife Leaflet
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Chufa (Cyperus esculentus) is an emergent perennial sedge that is common in seasonally flooded wetlands. Although chufa is common in many States, it is most abundant in the Southeast, including the Mississippi alluvial valley (Fig. 1). Belowground biomass of chufa, especially the tubers, serves as a valuable food source for waterfowl and cranes. Chufa tubers rank tenth among the most important waterfowl foods in the United States.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fish and Wildlife Leaflet