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Problem The Village of Dryden, rural homeowners, farms, and businesses in the Virgil Creek Valley tap several confined sand and gravel aquifers in the Virgil Creek valley in the town of Dryden . The valley contains a large moraine with complex stratigraphy consisting of continuous and discontinuous layers of till, lake deposits, and glaciofluvial sand and gravel. Sand and gravel units form the aquifers in the valley-fill deposits. There are at least three extensive confined aquifer units at various depths. However, little is known about (1) the location of recharge and discharge areas, (2) direction of groundwater flow, (3) extent of hydraulic connection between aquifer units, and (4) extent of surface- and ground-water...
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Problem The Tully Valley, located in southern Onondaga County has been the source of sediment and brackish water discharge to Onondaga Creek, a tributary to the Seneca and Oswego Rivers and eventually Lake Ontario. Information on the origin of the Tully Valley mudboils, their persistence, and the possible extent of their migration within the Tully Valley is needed to mitigate or remediate (1)the discharge of turbid water and fine-grained sediment from the mudboils, (2) land-surface subsidence caused by the removal of sediment from below the land surface, and (3) degradation of Onondaga Creek by turbidity, fine-sediment deposition, and chloride loading. Objectives To define the glacial stratigraphy and hydraulic-head...
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Significant changes in nitrogen loads to Jamaica Bay have likely occurred with progressive improvements to Water Pollution Control Plants (WCWPs) that discharge into the Bay. Data available from the New York City Department of Environmental Protection and others will be used to determine loads from WPCPs, combined sewer overflows, and the atmosphere. Selected wells within the USGS water quality database, including those near the landfills that are immediately adjacent to Jamaica Bay, will be used to determine concentrations of nutrients in shallow ground water that enter the bay from ground water seepage. To facilitate evaluation of ground water loads, an existing USGS Finite element model that simulates sub...
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Background Streams and rivers are an important environmental resource and provide water for many human needs. Streamflow is a measure of the volume of water carried by rivers and streams. Changes in streamflow can directly influence the supply of water available for human consumption, irrigation, generating electricity, and other needs. In addition, many plants and animals depend on streamflow for habitat and survival. Streamflow naturally varies over the course of a year. For example, rivers and streams in many parts of the country have their highest (peak) flow when snow melts in the spring. The amount of streamflow is important because high flows can cause erosion and damaging floods, while very low...
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Introduction Detailed mapping of the glacial aquifer within the buried Fairport-Lyons bedrock channel in southern Wayne County, N.Y. is the latest study in the cooperative Detailed Aquifer Mapping Program between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC). The aim of the program is to map the extent of glacial aquifers in New York State at a scale of 1:24,000. This information is used by NYSDEC Division of Water and others for delineation of groundwater contributing areas, assessing potential threats to aquifers from both point and non-point sources of pollution, responding to contamination from spills or leaks from underground storage facilities,...
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Background In recent years, more and more people have become concerned about Long Island's supply of freshwater. Currently, there is no comprehensive, island-wide resource that summarizes recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research related to the Island's aquifer system. A webpage will be developed by the USGS that will compile published data from the hydrologic-surveillance program, in place since the mid-1970’s, and various USGS sources, and supplement this information with more recent seasonal and annual hydrologic technical assistance will be provided to the Suffolk County Water Authority (SCWA) to help them produce an easy to understand annual report that will provide a snapshot of the state of Long Island's...
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Background The North Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP) covers a land area of approximately 34,000 mi 2 along the eastern seaboard of the United States from Long Island, N.Y., southward to the northern portion of North Carolina. This area is underlain by a thick wedge of sedimentary deposits that form a complex groundwater system in which the sands and gravels function as confined aquifers, and the silts and clays function as confining units. These confined aquifers of the NACP constitute a major source of water for public and domestic supply for the nearly 27 million people living in the region, as well as being important source of water for industrial and agricultural purposes. Increases in population and...
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Introduction High nitrate concentrations are a common concern among many purveyors, including the Suffolk County Water Authority (SCWA), the largest supplier of water to residents in Suffolk County. Typically, the amount of nitrate in groundwater is related to land use, where the greatest concentrations are observed in agricultural regions. In many areas, the nitrate concentration has increased steadily in recent years, even in areas that are no longer farmed and are now sewered. A statistical analysis for trends of over 20 years in nitrate concentration data from SCWA wells is needed to determine the susceptibility of supply-wells to exceed the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for nitrate. This information is essential...
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Problem - The major hydrogeologic units of Long Island, New York, have been delineated as part of the islandwide mapping effort of Smolensky, Buxton, and Shernoff that was published in 1989 as U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Atlas (HA) 709. Concern about local details in the hydrogeologic framework that may not be represented in HA-709 has led the USGS, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), to assess the hydrogeology of the Long Island area so ground-water-flow modeling planned by EPA can more fully reflect local hydrogeologic conditions. Objectives - The primary objective of this project is to construct geographic information system (GIS) datasets of the altitudes of the...
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Hydrogeologic characterization of the basal sand and gravel aquifer in the Hoosic River valley in Hoosick Falls, New York is important for determination of sources, extent, and future migration of PFOA groundwater contamination; evaluation of potential remedial actions; and appraisal of alternative groundwater supplies. Variations in the current pumping stresses and a planned 72-hour aquifer test provide an opportunity to characterize hydraulic connections in the basal sand and gravel aquifer through continuous monitoring of groundwater levels in selected wells.
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Problem Tribal Lands of the Shinnecock Nation Tribal community were inundated during Hurricane Sandy’s storm tide, resulting in detrimental effects on the Tribal Land’s natural resources. The existing science being used to inform decisions on remediation is biased toward activities are necessarily focused on the immediate aftermath of storms An assessment of the sources of contaminants that may have been introduced from inundation is needed to provide a context with which the Tribal community can better understand how to prioritize and manage the sources and minimize risk. Objectives This project will evaluate key human- and ecological-health concerns related to transport and persistence of...
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Background Heavy metals, phosphorus, and organic contaminants in water and sediments of the lower Genesee River, resulted in the designation of fourteen beneficial uses as impaired in the Rochester Embayment Area of Concern (AOC). The benthic macroinvertebrate community or “benthos” Beneficial Use Impairment (BUI) was designated as degraded in the Genesee River because the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) impairment metrics generally identified slight to moderate impacts through the 1990s and 2000s. Accumulation of “sediments on more suitable substrates” and “contaminants in sediment of the Genesee River related to past municipal and industrial waste-water treatment plant discharges...
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Problem Surface-water information is needed for planning, design, hazard warning, and operation and management in water-related fields such as water supply, hydroelectric power, flood control, irrigation, bridge and culvert design, wildlife management, pollution abatement, flood-plain management, and water-resources development. Appropriate historical and real-time surface-water data, such as stream flow and stage, reservoir levels, and water temperature, are necessary to properly assess, manage and protect water resources. Objectives Collect timely and high quality surface-water data for (1) assessment of water resources; (2) operation of reservoirs or industries; (3) forecasting flow; (4) disposal of wastes...
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Background - Detailed mapping of the glacial aquifer within the Chemung River and adjacent tributary valleys in Eastern Chemung County is the latest study in the cooperative Detailed Aquifer Mapping Program between the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC). The aim of the program is to map glacial aquifers in New York State at a scale of 1:24,000. This information is used by NYSDEC Division of Water and others for delineation of groundwater contributing areas, assessing potential threats to aquifers from both point and non-point sources, responding to contamination from spills or leaks from underground storage facilities, and providing information...
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In 1979, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) entered into a cooperative agreement with Monroe County (MC), which, over the span of more than three decades, has resulted in more than 30 reports that have summarized flow and water-quality data at sites in Monroe County and have presented the results of investigations of particular water-related issues that existed in the County. The collaborative relationship between Monroe County and the USGS entails: - USGS training and oversight of MC personnel to conduct site visits and measure streamflow and collect water samples at monitoring sites; - analyses of water samples by MC in a certified environmental laboratory that routinely participates in a USGS quality-control program...
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Problem - Since the 1980s, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has mapped over 30 sand and gravel aquifers in upstate New York at the 1:24,000-scale. These mapped aquifers include both the primary and many of the principal aquifers as designated by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Although the 1:24,000-scale maps are valuable in their present form, their usefulness is limited because the important features on the maps, namely aquifer boundaries and the surficial geology, are not available as digital geographic information system (GIS) datasets. Objectives - To maximize the usefulness of the aquifer maps, GIS datasets of the 1:24,000-scale aquifer maps will be developed. To further increase...
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Problem - The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP) is constructing or proposing water tunnels under New York City and areas of southeastern New York (Hudson River Basin). These tunnels can intersect faults and fractures that produce large amounts of ground water. For example, one tunnel excavation intersected fractures that produced over 200 gallons per minute of ground-water flow into the tunnel. Consequently, there is a need to determine the potential of intersecting ground-water producing fractures during tunnel excavation. The use of advanced borehole geophysical techniques by the USGS during tunnel excavations in northern Queens County demonstrated that geophysical techniques...
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Problem - The Ithaca Subdistrict Office of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is providing technical assistance to the USGS, Biological Resources Division (BRD), at the Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science (TLAS) in an investigation of the availability of fresh ground water. An expansion in the water supply at the laboratory is needed for a proposed spawning facility for salmon strains that are viable for natural fisheries in the Great Lakes region. The hydrogeology of the area is a complex of moraine and outwash deposits west of Cortland, N.Y. Data from existing wells at the laboratory indicate that well screens may readily clog from precipitated minerals. A review of the hydrogeology of the area, including...
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Problem Onondaga Lake has been identified as one of the nation's most contaminated lakes as a result of discharges from industrial, sewage, and stormwater sources, and the lake received priority cleanup status under the National Water Resources Development Act of 1990. Although remediation of polluted surface-water discharges is planned, the migration of poor quality (saline) ground water into the lake also affects the quality of lake water and may impair the remediation plans. Anthropogenic contamination has been identified at several sites near the lakeshore, including the former Allied Signal soda ash production facility and a former petroleum storage facility. Saline discharges from the Allied Signal waste...
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The combination of a complex hydrogeologic framework, narrow land masses surrounded by saltwater, and extensive ground-water public-supply pumpage has produced localized areas of elevated chloride concentrations in ground water. This project uses advanced surface and borehole geophysical methods to determine the extent of saltwater intrusion and road-salt plumes at selected sites in eastern Suffolk County, Long Island, NY. Two-dimensional resistivity sections have been integrated with borehole geophysical logs and water-quality data to produce cross-sections of road-salt plumes. Borehole geophysical logs are collected twice a year to determine variations in chloride concentration and thicknesses of intrusive...


map background search result map search result map The Onondaga Valley Ground-Water Study, central New York Nassau Hydrogeologic Maps Hydrogeology of the Tully Valley Mudboil Area, Southern Onondaga County, New York Development of GIS datasets for selected aquifers in New York Delineation of Rock Fractures, Faults, and Ground-Water Flow in the Vicinity of Proposed Water Tunnels, New York City and Southeastern New York Sediment Toxicity and Condition of Benthic Invertebrate Communities in the Rochester Embayment Area-of-Concern Assessment of Nutrient Loading to Jamaica Bay, Gateway National Recreation Area, New York Aquifer Appraisal at the Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science, Cortland, New York Surface-Water Data Collection in New York Trends in Nitrate Concentrations in Public Water-Supply Wells, Suffolk County, New York, 1982-2008 Delineation of the Freshwater-Saltwater Interface at Selected Public-Supply Wells Using Advanced Surface and Borehole Geophysical Techniques, in Eastern Suffolk County, New York Detailed Aquifer Mapping in Wayne County, New York, The Fairport-Lyons Channel Aquifer Long Island State of the Aquifer Report Detailed Aquifer Mapping in Eastern Chemung County – The Chemung River Valley and Adjacent Tributary Valleys Human- and Ecological-Health Concerns Related to Transport and Persistence of Contaminants on Shinnecock Nation Tribal Lands Water Resources of Monroe County, New York Hydrogeology of the Virgil Creek Valley in the Town of Dryden, Tompkins County, New York Hydrologic Climate Change Indicators Groundwater Availability of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Groundwater-level Monitoring for Characterization of Hydraulic Connections in the Basal Sand & Gravel Aquifer, Hoosic River Valley, Hoosick Falls, New York Aquifer Appraisal at the Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science, Cortland, New York Hydrogeology of the Tully Valley Mudboil Area, Southern Onondaga County, New York Groundwater-level Monitoring for Characterization of Hydraulic Connections in the Basal Sand & Gravel Aquifer, Hoosic River Valley, Hoosick Falls, New York Human- and Ecological-Health Concerns Related to Transport and Persistence of Contaminants on Shinnecock Nation Tribal Lands Hydrogeology of the Virgil Creek Valley in the Town of Dryden, Tompkins County, New York Assessment of Nutrient Loading to Jamaica Bay, Gateway National Recreation Area, New York Sediment Toxicity and Condition of Benthic Invertebrate Communities in the Rochester Embayment Area-of-Concern Water Resources of Monroe County, New York Trends in Nitrate Concentrations in Public Water-Supply Wells, Suffolk County, New York, 1982-2008 Delineation of the Freshwater-Saltwater Interface at Selected Public-Supply Wells Using Advanced Surface and Borehole Geophysical Techniques, in Eastern Suffolk County, New York Long Island State of the Aquifer Report Delineation of Rock Fractures, Faults, and Ground-Water Flow in the Vicinity of Proposed Water Tunnels, New York City and Southeastern New York Development of GIS datasets for selected aquifers in New York Surface-Water Data Collection in New York Groundwater Availability of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Hydrologic Climate Change Indicators