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The Hat Creek fault is a major, young, north-striking, normal fault along the western boundary of extensional Basin and Range deformation in the Lassen region of northeastern California. Volcanic rocks of Quaternary and late Pliocene age are displaced a total of >500 m down to the west along west-facing, en echelon scarps now retreated to ~35?? slopes. Fresh, young scarps as much as 30 m high cut the Hat Creek Basalt (erupted between 15 and ~40 ka) a few tens of meters west of the retreated scarps. Prior to the late 1980s, these young scarps were interpreted as lava slump scarps formed as the Hat Creek Basalt ponded against the older fault scarps and then drained away to the northwest. Numerous pieces of geologic...
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Holocene reactivation of the aseismic Meers fault in southwestern Oklahoma illustrates the limitation of using the historical seismic record for identifying hazardous faults in the central United States. The 26- to 37-km-long fault sarp is one of the few known scarps recording Holocene movement in the central and eastern United States. Two documented late Holocene slip events, each with about 2.5 m of net slip and estimated Ms ranging from 6 3/4 to 7 1/4 , identify the Meers fault as a potentially hazardous fault. In the present-day strike-slip regional stress field, the observed up-to-the-north Holocene displacement suggests that either the fault continues to dip steeply at depth or the regional stress field is...
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Four stratigraphically consistent 14C dates on peat and wood give an age of 26 000 yr BP for the start of Tulare Lake's late Wisconsin transgression. An earlier enlargement of Tulare Lake probably resulted from a fan dam produced by the penultimate major (Tahoe) glaciation of the Sierra Nevada. Average sedimentation rates inferred from depths to a 600 000-yr-old clay and from radiocarbon dates indicate that this earlier lake originated no later than 100 000 yr BP. The Tahoe glaciation therefore is probably pre- Wisconsin. -from Authors
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Perceives the Grindstone rocks to be a sedimentary melange composed of Paleozoic limestone slide and slump blocks that became detached from a carbonate shelf fringing a volcanic knoll or edifice in Late Permian to Middle Triassic time and were intermixed with Permian and Triassic slope to basinal clastic and volcaniclastic rocks in a forearc basin setting. Paleogeographic affinities of the Grindstone limestone faunas and volcaniclastic debris in the limestone and clastic rocks all indicate deposition in promixity to an island-arc system near the North American craton. -from Authors
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The lower Miocene Peach Springs Tuff exposed in the Newberry Mountains, California, was deposited within a paleovalley trending S65??W. A model is proposed whereby a turbulent boundary layer at the base of the pyroclastic flow is induced by surface roughness of the substrate and incorporates loose material from the substrate to produce a high-density ground layer that decouples from the lower-density, ash-rich pyroclastic flow. After decoupling has occurred, the high-density, lithic-rich ground layer moves independently from the ash-rich pyroclastic flow. The lithic breccia horizons have many characteristics of proximal (lag) breccias, and caution must be used when inferring distance from vent in ancient ignimbrites...
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Describes largely hydrologic processes of playa-basin development. Various geochemical changes including carbonate dissolution and enhancement of secondary porosity occur as water moves downward through the unsaturated zone beneath playa lakes.-from Authors
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Hydrologic, geologic, geomorphic, and mass-balance data suggest that most of the approx. 30 000 playa lake basins on the Southern High Plains have developed by a combination of dissolution of caliche and piping of surface material into the unsaturated zone rather than by eolian processes as has generally been stated.-from Authors
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High-precision K-Ar dating and detailed mapping have established an eruptive chronology for a Cascade stratovolcano and its surrounding array of coeval basaltic centers. The time-volume-composition data bear upon several fundamental questions concerning the long-term behavior of arc volcanoes. -from Authors
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Seismic activity in the Portland-Vancouver metropolitan area may be associated with various mapped faults that locally offset volcanic basement of Eocene age and younger. This volcanic basement is concealed in most places by young deposits, vegetation, and urban development. The US Geological Survey conducted an aeromagnetic survey in September 1992 to investigate the extent of these mapped faults and possibly to help identify other seismic and volcanic hazards in the area. The survey was flown approximately 240 m above terrain, along flight lines spaced 460 m apart, and over an area about 50 ?? 50 km. -from Authors
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A dome-building eruption at Mount Hood, Oregon, starting in A.D. 1781 and lasting until ca. 1793, produced dome-collapse lithic pyroclastic flows that triggered lahars and intermittently fed 108 m3 of coarse volcaniclastic sediment to sediment reservoirs in headwater canyons of the Sandy River. Mobilization of dominantly sandy sediment from these reservoirs by lahars and seasonal floods initiated downstream migration of a sediment wave that resulted in a profound cycle of aggradation and degradation in the lowermost reach of the river (depositional reach), 61-87 km from the source. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic relations in the alluvial fill, together with dendrochronologic dating of degradation terraces, demonstrate...
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Recently recovered archival levelling data from southwestern Arizona and adjacent parts of California compel major revisions in the configuration and interpretation of the southern California uplift, both at its culmination and following its partial collapse. Re-examination of the older vertical-control record indicates that similar modifications may be equally appropriate in any reconsideration of the early-20th-century analogue of the southern California uplift. The chief changes in our earlier reconstructions appear as a sharply diminished isobase gradient south of Cottonwood Pass, dramatically reduced tectonic subsidence centering on the Salton Sea, and short-lived uplift of of at least 0.3 m at the latitude...
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The Virgin River depression and surrounding mountains are Neogene features that are partly contiguous with the little-strained rocks of the structural transition to the Colorado Plateau province. This contiguity makes the area ideally suited for evaluating the sense, magnitude, and kinematics of Neogene deformation. Analysis along the strain boundary shows that, compared to the adjacent little-strained area, large-magnitude vertical deformation greatly exceeds extensional deformation and that significant amounts of lateral displacement approximately parallel the province boundary. Isostatic rebound following tectonic denudation is an unlikely direct cause of the strong vertical structural relief adjacent to the...
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The 1912 Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS) ignimbrite was constructed from 9 compositionally distinct, sequentially emplaced packages, each with distinct proportions of rhyolite (R), dacite (D), and andesite (A) pumices that permit us to map package boundaries and flow paths from vent to distal extents. Changing pumice proportions and interbedding relationships link ignimbrite formation to coeval fall deposition during the first ???16 h (Episode I) of the eruption. Pumice compositional proportions in the ignimbrite were estimated by counts on ???100 lapilli at multiple levels in vertical sections wherever accessible and more widely over most of the ignimbrite surface in the VTTS. The initial, 100% rhyolite ignimbrite...
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Major coral reef complexes rim many modern and ancient carbonate platforms. Their role in margin evolution is not fully understood, particularly when they border a margin atypical of the classic model. Classic windward margins are steeply inclined. The windward margin of southeast Florida is distinct with a very low-gradient slope and a shelf edge ringed with 30-m-high Quaternary outlier reefs on a shallow upper-slope terrace. A newly developed synthesis of temporally well-constrained geologic events is used with surface and subsurface seismic-reflection contours to construct morphogenetic models of four discontinuous reef-complex sequences. The models show uneven subsurface topography, upward and landward buildups,...
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Closed-basin pluvial lakes are sensitive recorders of effective moisture, and they provide a terrestrial signal of climate change that can be compared to marine and ice records of glacial-interglacial cycles. Although the most recent deep-lake cycle in the western Great Basin (at ca. 16 ka) has been studied intensively, comparatively little is known about the longer-term Quaternary lacustrine history of the region. Lacustrine features higher than those of the most recent highstand have been discovered in many locations throughout the western Great Basin. Qualitative geomorphic and soil studies of shoreline sequences above the latest Pleistocene level suggest that their ages increase as a function of increasing altitude....
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The improved resolution of sediment provenance from detrital zircon analysis of Great Valley stratigraphy enables recognition of previously undocumented arc magmatism and the evolution of regional drainage systems within the Cretaceous arc-forearc system related to uplift, magmatism, and structure in the arc. Great Valley detrital zircon age data confirm previous studies that indicate that the locus of the sediment source in the southern Sierra Nevada arc migrated east with the active volcanic front and suggest rapid rates of uplift and unroofing of the southern arc. Sacramento Valley detrital zircon age data indicate a more complex history of drainage in the northern Klamath-Sierran arc than previously documented....
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Geologic mapping, K-Ar, and 40Ar/39Ar age determinations, supplemented by paleomagnetic measurements and geochemical data, are used to quantify the Quaternary volcanic history of the Crater Lake region in order to define processes and conditions that led to voluminous explosive eruptions. The Cascade arc volcano known as Mount Mazama collapsed during its climactic eruption of ∼50 km3 of mainly rhyodacitic magma ∼7700 yr ago to form Crater Lake caldera. The Mazama edifice was constructed on a Pleistocene silicic lava field, amidst monogenetic and shield volcanoes ranging from basalt to andesite similar to parental magmas for Mount Mazama. Between 420 ka and 35 ka, Mazama produced medium-K andesite and dacite in 2:1...
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Seismic reflection and gravity profiles collected across Yucca Mountain, Nevada, together with geologic data, provide evidence against proposed active detachment faults at shallow depth along the pre-Tertiary-Tertiary contact beneath this potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. The new geophysical data show that the inferred pre-Tertiary-Tertiary contact is offset by moderate- to high-angle faults beneath Crater Flat and Yucca Mountain, and thus this shallow surface cannot represent an active detachment surface. Deeper, low-angle detachment surface(s) within Proterozoic-Paleozoic bedrock cannot be ruled out by our geophysical data, but are inconsistent with other geologic and geophysical observations...
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K??lauea may be one of the world's most intensively monitored volcanoes, but its eruptive history over the past several thousand years remains rather poorly known. Our study has revealed the vestiges of thin basaltic tephra deposits, overlooked by previous workers, that originally blanketed wide, near-summit areas and extended more than 17 km to the south coast of Hawai'i. These deposits, correlative with parts of tephra units at the summit and at sites farther north and northwest, show that K??lauea, commonly regarded as a gentle volcano, was the site of energetic pyroclastic eruptions and indicate the volcano is significantly more hazardous than previously realized. Seventeen new calibrated accelerator mass spectrometry...
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Onshore evidence suggests that a plate is missing from published reconstructions of the northeastern Pacific Ooean in Paleocene- Eocene time. The Resurrection plate, named for the Resurrection Peninsula ophiolite near Seward, Alaska, was located east of the Kula plate and north of the Farallon plate. We interpret coeval near-trench magmatism in southern Alaska and the Cascadia margin as evidence for two slab windows associated with trench-ridge-trench (TRT) triple junctions, which formed the western and southern boundaries of the Resurrection plate. In Alaska, the Sanak-Baranof belt of near-trench intrusions records a west-to-east migration, from 61 to 50 Ma, of the northern TRT triple junction along a 2100-km-long...


map background search result map search result map Magnitude and timing of downstream channel aggradation and degradation in response to a dome-building eruption at Mount Hood, Oregon Magnitude and timing of downstream channel aggradation and degradation in response to a dome-building eruption at Mount Hood, Oregon