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On May 25, 1980, the resort town of Mammoth Lakes, California, was shaken by a remarkable 48-hour-long earthquake sequence that included four M=6, two M=5 and 300 M=3 quakes. The nature of the precursory seismicity plus the unusual character of the May 25-27 sequence itself suggested that it was not typical of tectonic earthquakes in the region. Discovery of 25 cm of domical uplift centred on the resurgent dome within Long Valley caldera strongly implied that this activity was accompanied, if not caused, by influex of magma into the Long Valley magma chamber. -Authors
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geoscience Canada
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Climate and weather have long been noted as playing key roles in wildfire activity, and global warming is expected to exacerbate fire impacts on natural and urban ecosystems. Predicting future fire regimes requires an understanding of how temperature and precipitation interact to control fire activity. Inevitably this requires historical analyses that relate annual burning to climate variation. Fuel structure plays a critical role in determining which climatic parameters are most influential on fire activity, and here, by focusing on the diversity of ecosystems in California, we illustrate some principles that need to be recognized in predicting future fire regimes. Spatial scale of analysis is important in that...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geoscience Canada
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The growth of the dacite dome at Mount St. Helens between 1980 and 1986 has been more intensively studied than that of any other dome-building eruption. The growth has been complex in detail, but remarkably regular overall. This paper summarizes some of what has been learned and provides many references to additional information. Whether dome building has ended is an open question, particularly in view of the renewed, though minor, explosive activity of late 1989 and early 1990. -Author
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geoscience Canada
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The tectonic history of Atlantic Canada is summarized according to a model of multiple ocean opening-closing cycles. The modern North Atlantic Ocean is in the opening phase of its cycle. It was preceded by an early Paleozoic lapetus Ocean whose cycle led to formation of the Appalachian Orogen. lapetus was preceded by the Neoproterozoic Uranus Ocean whose cycle led to formation of the Grenville Orogen. The phenomenon of coincident, or almost coincident orogens and modern continental margins that relate to repeated ocean opening-closing cycles is called the Accordion Effect. An understanding of the North Atlantic Ocean and its continental margins provides insights into the nature of lapetus and the evolution of the...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geoscience Canada
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Canada has the longest coastline and largest continental margin of any nation in the World. As a result, it is more likely than other nations to experience marine geohazards such as submarine landslides and consequent tsunamis. Coastal landslides represent a specific threat because of their possible proximity to societal infrastructure and high tsunami potential; they occur without warning and with little time lag between failure and tsunami impact. Continental margin landslides are common in the geologic record but rare on human timescales. Some ancient submarine landslides are massive but more recent events indicate that even relatively small slides on continental margins can generate devastating tsunamis. Tsunami...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geoscience Canada
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About 110 well-dated and 70 poorly dated eruptive periods less than 15 000 years old at individual volcanoes in the Cascade Arc constitute a data set for identifying spatial and temporal patterns of eruptive activity. Key features of the record include: 1) the mean frequency of eruptive periods during the past 4000 years is approximately two per century; however, the variance about the mean may be large; 2) at most major centres, episodes of activity lasting several thousand years are defined by groups of eruptive periods separated by apparent dormant intervals of roughly similar duration, 3) arc-wide clustering of eruptive activity may exist at 0-4 ka, 6-8 ka, and 10-14 ka. Such clustering would be remarkable in...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geoscience Canada
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Ice-sheet sourced Pleistocene turbidite systems of the Labrador Sea are different from non-glacially influenced systems in their facies distribution and depositional processes. Two large-scale sediment dispersal systems are juxtaposed, one mud-dominated and associated with the Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel (NAMOC), the other sand-dominated and forming a huge submarine braided sandplain. Co-existence of the two systems reflects grain-size separation of the coarse and fine fractions on an enormous scale, caused by sediment winnowing at the entrance points of meltwater from the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) to the sea (Hudson Strait, fiords) and involves a complex interplay of depositional and redepositional processes....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geoscience Canada
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Porphyry deposits are intrusion-related, large tonnage low grade mineral deposits with metal assemblages that may include all or some of copper, molybdenum, gold and silver. The genesis of these deposits is related to the emplacement of intermediate to felsic, hypabyssal, generally porphyritic intrusions that are commonly formed at convergent plate margins. Porphyry deposits of the Canadian Cordillera occur in association with two distinctive intrusive suites: calc-alkalic and alkalic. In the Canadian Cordillera, these deposits formed during two separate time periods: Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic (early Mesozoic), and Late Cretaceous to Eocene (Mesozoic-Cenozoic). Deposits of the early Mesozoic period occur...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geoscience Canada
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Modern monitoring of seismic activity at Cascade Range volcanoes began at Longmire on Mount Rainier in 1958. Since then, there has been an expansion of the regional seismic networks in Washington, northern Oregon and northern California. Now, the Cascade Range from Lassen Peak to Mount Shasta in the south and Newberry Volcano to Mount Baker in the north is being monitored for earthquakes as small as magnitude 2.0, and many of the stratovolcanoes are monitored for non-earthquake seismic activity. This monitoring has yielded three major observations. First, tectonic earthquakes are concentrated in two segments of the Cascade Range between Mount Rainier and Mount Hood and between Mount Shasta and Lassen Peak, whereas...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geoscience Canada
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The Cascade Range stretches from southwestern British Columbia to northern California; the Range consists of major composite volcanic centres, most of which have been active during late Pleistocene and Holocene time. In addition, thousands of smaller basaltic or basaltic-andesite volcanoes have been active during the past few million years. Flowage and tephra hazards associated with future eruptions of composite volcanoes in the Range will endanger communities located within about 50 km of erupting volcanoes. Significant effects will extend to still greater distances downwind from the volcanoes and along stream valleys that head at the volcanoes. Volcanic-hazard assessments and hazard-zonation maps developed for...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geoscience Canada