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Gneissic pegmatitic leucogranite forms a dominant component (>600 km3) of the midcrustal infrastructure of the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range core complex (Nevada, USA), and was assembled and modified episodically into a batholithic volume by myriad small intrusions from ca. 92 to 29 Ma. This injection complex consists of deformed sheets and other bodies emplaced syntectonically into a stratigraphic framework of marble, calc-silicate rocks, quartzite, schist, and other granitoids. Bodies of pegmatitic granite coalesce around host-rock remnants, which preserve relict or ghost stratigraphy, thrusts, and fold nappes. Intrusion inflated but did not disrupt the host-rock structure. The pegmatitic granite increases...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geosphere
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The U.S. and Canadian Cordilleran miogeocline evolved during several phases of Cryogenian-Devonian intracontinental rifting that formed the western mangin of Laurentia. Recent field and dating studies across central Idaho and northern Nevada result in identification of two segments of the rift margin. Resulting interpretations of rift geometry in the northern U.S. Cordillera are compatible with interpretations of northwest- striking asymmetric extensional segments subdivided by northeast-striking transform and transfer segments. The new interpretation permits integration of miogeoclinal segments along the length of the western North American Cordillera. For the U.S. Cordillera, miogeoclinal segments include the...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geosphere
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The poorly known, suspect, Uchee terrane occupies a critical tectonic position with regard to how and when peri-Gondwanan (Carolina) and Gondwanan (Suwannee) terranes were sutured to Laurentia. It lies sandwiched between Laurentian(?) continental basement exposed in the Pine Mountain window and adjacent buried Gondwanan crust of the Suwannee terrane. The Uchee terrane has been proposed as both a septum of Piedmont rocks that once was continuous across the erosionally breached Pine Mountain window or part of the Carolina zone. To help resolve this issue, we conducted U-Pb (SHRIMP-RG) (sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry) zircon studies and whole-rock isotopic analyses of principal metasedimentary...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geosphere
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It is important to know whether major mining districts in north-central Nevada are underlain by crust of the Archean Wyoming craton, known to contain major orogenic gold deposits or, alternatively, by accreted crust of the Paleoproterozoic Mojave province. Determining the location and orientation of the Archean-Proterozoic suture zone between these provinces is also important because it may influence subsequent patterns of sedimentation, deformation, magmatism, and hydrothermal activity. The suture zone is exposed in northeastern Utah and south-western Wyoming and exhibits a southwest strike. In the Great Basin, the suture zone strike is poorly constrained because it is largely concealed below a Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geosphere
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The Neogene Peters Hills basin is a small terrestrial basin that formed along the south flank of the Alaska Range during a time in which there was regional shortening. The formation of the Peters Hills basin is consistent with it being a wedge-top basin that formed on top of the active southeast-vergent Broad Pass thrust fault. Movement along this thrust raised a ridge of Jurassic and Cretaceous metasedimentary rocks, which then trapped behind it Miocene and Pliocene sediments that were derived from the growing Alaska Range. The presence of this thrust fault is consistent with regional structural, stratigraphic, seismicity, gravity, and aeromagnetic data. The Peters Hills basin is no longer a depocenter, but if...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geosphere
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The western Nevada volcanic field is the western third of a belt of calderas through Nevada and western Utah. Twenty-three calderas and their caldera-forming tuffs are reasonably well identified in the western Nevada volcanic field, and the presence of at least another 14 areally extensive, apparently voluminous ash-flow tuffs whose sources are unknown suggests a similar number of undiscovered calderas. Eruption and caldera collapse occurred between at least 34.4 and 23.3 Ma and clustered into five ∼0.5–2.7-Ma-long episodes separated by quiescent periods of ∼1.4 Ma. One eruption and caldera collapse occurred at 19.5 Ma. Intermediate to silicic lavas or shallow intrusions commonly preceded caldera-forming eruptions...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geosphere
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Santa Clara Valley is bounded on the southwest and northeast by active strike-slip and reverse-oblique faults of the San Andreas fault system. On both sides of the valley, these faults are superposed on older normal and/or right-lateral normal oblique faults. The older faults comprised early components of the San Andreas fault system as it formed in the wake of the northward passage of the Mendocino Triple Junction. On the east side of the valley, the great majority of fault displacement was accommodated by the older faults, which were almost entirely abandoned when the presently active faults became active after ca. 2.5 Ma. On the west side of the valley, the older faults were abandoned earlier, before ca. 8 Ma...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geosphere
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Volcanic rocks in the Sonoma volcanic field in the northern California Coast Ranges contain heterogeneous assemblages of a variety of compositionally diverse volcanic rocks. We have used field mapping, new and existing age determinations, and 343 new major and trace element analyses of whole-rock samples from lavas and tuff to define for the first time volcanic source areas for many parts of the Sonoma volcanic field. Geophysical data and models have helped to define the thickness of the volcanic pile and the location of caldera structures. Volcanic rocks of the Sonoma volcanic field show a broad range in eruptive style that is spatially variable and specific to an individual eruptive center. Major, minor, and trace-element...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geosphere
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A comprehensive survey of geologic structures formed in the Earth’s brittle regime in the eastern Española Basin and flank of the Rio Grande rift, New Mexico, reveals a complex and protracted record of multiple tectonic events. Data and analyses from this representative rift flank-basin pair include measurements from 53 individual fault zones and 22 other brittle structures, such as breccia zones, joints, and veins, investigated at a total of just over 100 sites. Structures were examined and compared in poorly lithified Tertiary sediments, as well as in Paleozoic sedimentary and Proterozoic crystalline rocks. Data and analyses include geologic maps; field observations and measurements; orientation, kinematic, and...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geosphere
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Gneissic pegmatitic leucogranite forms a dominant component (>600 km3) of the midcrustal infrastructure of the Ruby Mountains–East Humboldt Range core complex (Nevada, USA), and was assembled and modified episodically into a batholithic volume by myriad small intrusions from ca. 92 to 29 Ma. This injection complex consists of deformed sheets and other bodies emplaced syntectonically into a stratigraphic framework of marble, calc-silicate rocks, quartzite, schist, and other granitoids. Bodies of pegmatitic granite coalesce around host-rock remnants, which preserve relict or ghost stratigraphy, thrusts, and fold nappes. Intrusion inflated but did not disrupt the host-rock structure. The pegmatitic granite increases...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geosphere
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Advances in data capture and computer technology have made possible the collection of three-dimensional, high-resolution, digital geological data from outcrop analogs. This paper presents new methodologies for the acquisition and utilization of three-dimensional information generated by ground-based laser scanning (lidar) of outcrops. A complete workflow is documented—from outcrop selection through data collection, processing and building of virtual outcrops—to geological interpretation and the building of geocellular models using an industry-standard, reservoir-modeling software. Data sets from the Roda Sandstone in the Spanish Pyrenees and the Grabens region of Canyon-lands National Park, Utah, USA, are used...
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Interpretation of magnetic and new gravity data provides constraints on the geometry of the Hat Creek Fault, the amount of right-lateral offset in the area between Mt. Shasta and Lassen Peak, and confirmation of the influence of pre-existing structure on Quaternary faulting. Neogene volcanic rocks coincide with short-wavelength magnetic anomalies of both normal and reversed polarity, whereas a markedly smoother magnetic field occurs over the Klamath Mountains and its Paleogene cover. Although the magnetic field over the Neogene volcanic rocks is complex, the Hat Creek Fault, which is one of the most prominent normal faults in the region and forms the eastern margin of the Hat Creek Valley, is marked by the eastern...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geosphere
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Frequent high-resolution measurements of topography at active volcanoes can provide important information for assessing the distribution and rate of emplacement of volcanic deposits and their influence on hazard. At dome-building volcanoes, monitoring techniques such as LiDAR and photogrammetry often provide a limited view of the area affected by the eruption. Here, we show the ability of satellite radar observations to image the lava dome and pyroclastic density current deposits that resulted from 15 years of eruptive activity at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, from 1995 to 2010. We present the first geodetic measurements of the complete subaerial deposition field on Montserrat, including the lava dome. Synthetic...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geosphere
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The Tualatin basin, west of Portland (Oregon, USA), coincides with a 110 mGal gravity low along the Puget-Willamette lowland. New gravity measurements (n = 3000) reveal a three-dimensional (3-D) subsurface geometry suggesting early development as a fault-bounded pull-apart basin. A strong northwest-trending gravity gradient coincides with the Gales Creek fault, which forms the southwestern boundary of the Tualatin basin. Faults along the northeastern margin in the Portland Hills and the northeast-trending Sherwood fault along the southeastern basin margin are also associated with gravity gradients, but of smaller magnitude. The gravity low reflects the large density contrast between basin fill and the mafic crust...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geosphere
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Among large ignimbrites, the Bonanza Tuff and its source caldera in the Southern Rocky Mountain volcanic field display diverse depositional and structural features that provide special insights concerning eruptive processes and caldera development. In contrast to the nested loci for successive ignimbrite eruptions at many large multicyclic calderas elsewhere, Bonanza caldera is an areally isolated structure that formed in response to a single ignimbrite eruption. The adjacent Marshall caldera, the nonresurgent lava-filled source for the 33.9-Ma Thorn Ranch Tuff, is the immediate precursor for Bonanza, but projected structural boundaries of two calderas are largely or entirely separate even though the western topographic...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geosphere
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We use geophysical data to examine the structural framework of the northern San Francisco Bay region, an area that hosts the northward continuation of the East Bay fault system. Although this fault system has accommodated ∼175 km of right-lateral offset since 12 Ma, how this offset is partitioned north of the bay is controversial and important for understanding where and how strain is accommodated along this stretch of the broader San Andreas transform margin. Using gravity and magnetic data, we map these faults, many of which influenced basin formation and volcanism. Continuity of magnetic anomalies in certain areas, such as Napa and Sonoma Valleys, the region north of Napa Valley, and the region south of the Santa...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geosphere
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Magnetic anomalies provide surprising structural detail within the previously undivided Coastal Belt, the westernmost, youngest, and least-metamorphosed part of the Franciscan Complex of northern California. Although the Coastal Belt consists almost entirely of arkosic graywacke and shale of mainly Eocene age, new detailed aeromagnetic data show that it is pervasively marked by long, narrow, and regularly spaced anomalies. These anomalies arise from relatively simple tabular bodies composed principally of magnetic basalt or graywacke confi ned mainly to the top couple of kilometers, even though metamorphic grade indicates that these rocks have been more deeply buried, at depths of 5–8 km. If true, this implies surprisingly...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geosphere
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The neotectonics of southern Alaska (USA) are characterized by a several hundred kilometers–wide zone of dextral transpressional that spans the Alaska Range. The Denali fault system is the largest active strike-slip fault system in interior Alaska, and it produced a Mw 7.9 earthquake in 2002. To evaluate the late Quaternary slip rate on the Denali fault system, we collected samples for cosmogenic surface exposure dating from surfaces offset by the fault system. This study includes data from 107 samples at 19 sites, including 7 sites we previously reported, as well as an estimated slip rate at another site. We utilize the interpreted surface ages to provide estimated slip rates. These new slip rate data confirm that...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geosphere
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The Mesozoic magmatic history of the North American margin records the evolution from a more segmented assemblage of parautochthonous and allochthonous terranes to the more cohesive northern Cordilleran orogenic belt. We characterize the setting of magmatism, tectonism, and epigenetic mineralization in the western Fortymile mining district, east-central Alaska, where parautochthonous and allochthonous Paleozoic tectonic assemblages are juxtaposed, using sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon geochronology, whole-rock geochemistry, and feldspar Pb isotopes of Mesozoic intrusions and spatially associated mineral prospects. New SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages and published U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar ages indicate...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geosphere
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Widespread extension began across the northern and central Basin and Range Province at 17–16 Ma, contemporaneous with magmatism along the Nevada–Columbia Basin magmatic belt, a linear zone of dikes and volcanic centers that extends for >1000 km, from southern Nevada to the Columbia Basin of eastern Washington. This belt was generated above an elongated sublithospheric melt zone associated with arrival of the Yellowstone mantle plume, with a north-south tabular shape attributed to plume ascent through a propagating fracture in the Juan de Fuca slab. Dike orientation along the magmatic belt suggests an extension direction of 245°–250°, but this trend lies oblique to the regional extension direction of 280°–300° during...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geosphere


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