Filters: Tags: Great Basin Naturalist (X)19 results (207ms)
We surveyed 7 species of predatory birds weekly during a 12-month period (December 1992 through November 1993) in the east Mojave Desert, California. The Common Raven (Corvus corax) was the most frequently observed species with an average of 6.9 sightings per 100 km. Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), Loggerhead Shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus), American Kestrels (Falco sparverius), Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and Prairie Falcons (Falco mexicanus) were seen in decreasing order of frequency of observation through the study period. Ravens, Red-tailed Hawks, Loggerhead Shrikes, American Kestrels, and Prairie Falcons were seen throughout the year. Turkey Vultures were not present...
We investigated occupied squirrel middens and squirrel sightings and vocalizations as indicators of red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) abundance in the high-elevation whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) zone. Data were collected 1984-1989 from line transects located on 2 study sites in the Yellowstone ecosystem. We evaluated the performance of each measure on the basis of precision and biological considerations. We concluded that, of the 3 measures, active middens were the best indicator of red squirrel abundance. We also observed that the density of active middens dropped by 48%-66% between 1987 and 1989, following a severe drought and extensive wildfires that burned one of the study sites during 1988.
Sources of variation in counts of meristic features of Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri)
We determined variability in counts of meristic features (pyloric caceae, vertebrae, pelvic fin rays, gill-rakers, basibranchial teeth, scales above the lateral line, and scales in the lateral series) of Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri) by 3 independent readers, by the same reader on 3 different occasions, and among fish from 12 sampling sites within a 650-km2 watershed. Genetic purity of the cutthroat trout was determined by electrophoretic analysis. Significant differences in meristic counts were observed among 3 readers and among sampling sites, but not among 3 occasions by a single reader. Scale counts were within the reported range for Yellowstone cutthroat trout, but counts of other...
Sage Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) brood-habitat use was examined during 1992 and 1993 at the Yakima Training Center in Yakima and Kittitas counties, Washington. During the 2 yr we followed 38 broods, of which 12 persisted to 1 August (x?? = approximately 1.5 chicks/brood). Food forb cover was greater at all brood locations than at random locations. Hens with broods in big sagebrush/bunchgrass habitat (Artemisia tridentata/Agropyron spicatum) selected for greater food forb cover, total forb cover, and lower shrub heights; broods in altered big sagebrush/bunchgrass habitats selected greater tall grass cover and vertical cover height; broods in grassland showed no preference for any measured vegetation characteristics....
Soil microstructure in soils of the Colorado Plateau: The role of the cyanobacterium Microcoleus vaginatus
The role of the cyanobacterium Microcoleus vaginatlls in cold-desert soil crusts is investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Crusts from sandstone-, limestone-, and gypsum-derived soils are examined. When dry, polysaccharide sheath material from this cyanobacterium can be seen winding through and across all three types of soil surfaces, attaching to and binding soil particles together. When wet, sheaths and living filaments can be seen absorbing water, swelling and covering soil surfaces even more extensively. Addition of negatively charged material, found both as sheath material and attached clay particles, may affect cation exchange capacity of these soils as well. As a result of these observations, we...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation, Journal Citation; Tags: Great Basin Naturalist, Microcoleus vaginatus, cryptobiotic crusts, cryptogamic crusts, cyanobacteria,
Recovery rates of cyanobacterial-lichen soil crusts from disturbance were examined. Plots were either undisturbed or scalped, and scalped plots were either inoculated with surrounding biological crust material or left to recover naturally. Natural recovery rates were found to be very slow. Inoculation significantly hastened recovery for the cyanobacterial/green algal component, lichen cover, lichen species richness, and moss cover. Even with inoculation, however, lichen and moss recovery was minimal. Traditional techniques of assessing recovery visually were found to underestimate time for total recovery. Other techniques, such as extraction of chlorophyll a from surface soil and measurement of sheath material accumulation,...
Effects of salinity on establishment of <i>Populus fremontii</i> (cottonwood) and <i>Tamarix ramosissima</i> (saltcedar) in southwestern United States
The exotic shrub Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar) has replaced the native Populus fremontii(cottonwood) along many streams in southwestern United States. We used a controlled outdoor experiment to examine the influence of river salinity on germination and first year survival of P. fremontii var. wislizenii (Rio Grande cottonwood) and T. ramosissima on freshly deposited alluvial bars. We grew both species from seed in planters of sand subjected to a declining water table and solutions containing 0, 1, 3, and 5 times the concentrations of major ions in the Rio Grande at San Marcia, NM (1.2, 10.0, 25.7 and 37.4 meq 1-1; 0.11, 0.97, 2.37, and 3.45 dS m-1). Germination of P. fremontii declined by 35% with increasing salinity...
Late Quaternary-age arthropods were recovered from dry cave deposits and packrat middens located in the Grand Canyon, Canyonlands, and Glen Canyon region of the Colorado Plateau. This Quaternary data resource has not been analyzed before from the Colorado Plateau national parks. Radiocarbon dates on the various deposits containing arthropods range from 1510 to 30,660 yr B.P. The fossil assemblages yielded 57 identified taxa of insects, arachnids, and millipedes, including 15 taxa taken to the species level. The information from the fossil insect record of the Colorado Plateau is not yet sufficiently detailed to permit precise paleoenvironmental reconstructions. However, preliminary conclusions suggest a cooler,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation, Journal Citation; Tags: Colorado Plateau, Grand Canyon, Great Basin Naturalist, Quaternary, Wisconsin glacial,
Effects of salinity on establishment of Populus fremontii (cottonwood) and Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar) in southwestern United States
The exotic shrub Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar) has replaced the native Populus fremontii (cottonwood) along many streams in southwestern United States. We used a controlled outdoor experiment to examine the influence of river salinity on germination and first-year survival of P. fremontii var. wislizenii (Rio Grande cottonwood) and T. ramosissima on freshly deposited alluvial bars. We grew both species from seed in planters of sand subjected to a declining water table and solutions containing 0, 1, 3, and 5 times the concentrations of major ions in the Rio Grande at San Marcial, NM (1.2, 10.0, 25.7, and 37.4 meq l super(-1); 0.11, 0.97, 2.37, and 3.45 dS m super(-1)). Germination of P. fremontii declined by 35%...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation, Journal Citation; Tags: Great Basin Naturalist
Soil microstructure in soils of the Colorado Plateau: the role of the cyanobacterium Microcoleus vaginatus
No abstract available.
Ecological comparison of sympatraic populations of sand lizards (Cophosaurus texanus and Callisaurus draconoides)
Holocene vegetation and historic grazing impacts at Capitol Reef National Park reconstructed using packrat middens
Mid- to late-Holocene vegetation change from a remote high-desert site was reconstructed using plant macrofossils and pollen from 9 packrat middens ranging from 0 to 5400 yr in age. Presettlement middens consistently contained abundant macrofossils of plant species palatable to large herbivores that are now absent or reduced, such as winterfat (Ceratoides lanatd) and ricegrass (Stipa hymenoides). Macrofossils and pollen of pinyon pine (Pinus edulis), sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), and roundleaf buffaloberry (Shepherdia rotundifolia) were also recently reduced to their lowest levels for the 5400-yr record. Conversely, species typical of overgrazed range, such as snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae), viscid rabbitbrush...
Chemical and biological characteristics of desert rock pools in intermittent streams of Capitol Reef National Park, Utah
Chemical variability and biological communities of rock pools found in small desert drainage basins of Capitol Reef National Park were characterized over 8 mon in 1994. Neither flooding, drying, nor the presence or absence of surrounding vegetated wetlands had a great effect on chemical composition, which was very dilute and fluctuated somewhat in response to rain events. Neither flooding nor drying affected the composition of biological communities in the pools. Summer storms affected only a few drainages at a time, and only a few study pools of significant volume dried completely during the hot, dry summer. This suggests that only a portion of the Waterpocket Fold aquatic community is ever disturbed at a time,...