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This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The Clean and Plentiful Water category in this web service includes layers illustrating the ecosystems and natural resources that filter and regulate water, the need or demand for clean and plentiful water, the impacts associated with water quality, and factors that place stress on water quality and supply. EnviroAtlas allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the conterminous United States. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this web service is located within each web...
Types: Citation; Tags: 12-digit HUCs, Agriculture, Air, Alabama, Alaska, All tags...
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This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The Food, Fuel, and Materials category in this web service includes layers illustrating the ecosystems and natural resources that provide or support the production of food, fuel, or other materials, the need or demand for these items, the impacts associated with their presence and accessibility, and factors that place stress on the natural environment's capability to provide these benefits. EnviroAtlas allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the conterminous United States. Additional descriptive...
Types: Citation; Tags: 12-digit HUCs, Agriculture, Air, Alabama, Alaska, All tags...
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A commercially available electromagnetic flowmeter is attached to a seepage cylinder to create an electromagnetic seepage meter (ESM) for automating measurement of fluxes across the sediment/water interface between ground water and surface water. The ESM is evaluated through its application at two lakes in New England, one where water seeps into the lake and one where water seeps out of the lake. The electromagnetic flowmeter replaces the seepage-meter bag and provides a continuous series of measurements from which temporal seepage processes can be investigated. It provides flow measurements over a range of three orders of magnitude, and contains no protruding components or moving parts. The ESM was used to evaluate...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ground Water
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The fate of disinfection byproducts during aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is evaluated for aquifers in Southern Nevada. Rapid declines of haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations during ASR, with associated little change in Cl concentration, indicate that HAAs decline primarily by in situ microbial oxidation. Dilution is only a minor contributor to HAA concentration declines during ASR. Trihalomethane (THM) concentrations generally increased during storage of artificial recharge (AR) water and then declined during recovery. The decline of THM concentrations during recovery was primarily from dilution of current season AR water with residual AR water remaining in the aquifer from previous ASR seasons and native ground...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ground Water
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The suitability of common-offset ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to detect free-phase hydrocarbons in bedrock fractures was evaluated using numerical modeling and physical experiments. The results of one- and two-dimensional numerical modeling at 100 megahertz indicate that GPR reflection amplitudes are relatively insensitive to fracture apertures ranging from 1 to 4 mm. The numerical modeling and physical experiments indicate that differences in the fluids that fill fractures significantly affect the amplitude and the polarity of electromagnetic waves reflected by subhorizontal fractures. Air-filled and hydrocarbon-filled fractures generate low-amplitude reflections that are in-phase with the transmitted pulse....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ground Water
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Normally, slug test measurements are limited to the well in which the water level is perturbed. Consequently, it is often difficult to obtain reliable estimates of hydraulic properties, particularly if the aquifer is anisotropic or if there is a wellbore skin. In this investigation, we use partially penetrating stress and observation wells to evaluate specific storage, radial hydraulic conductivity and anisotropy of the aquifer, and the hydraulic conductivity of the borehole skin. The study site is located in the W9 subbasin of the Sleepers River Research Watershed, Vermont. At the site, ∼3 m of saturated till are partially penetrated by a stress well located in the center of the unconfined aquifer and six observation...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ground Water
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Ground water systems dominated by iron‐ or sulfate‐reducing conditions may be distinguished by observing concentrations of dissolved iron (Fe2+) and sulfide (sum of H2S, HS−, and S= species and denoted here as “H2S”). This approach is based on the observation that concentrations of Fe2+ and H2S in ground water systems tend to be inversely related according to a hyperbolic function. That is, when Fe2+ concentrations are high, H2S concentrations tend to be low and vice versa. This relation partly reflects the rapid reaction kinetics of Fe2+ with H2S to produce relatively insoluble ferrous sulfides (FeS). This relation also reflects competition for organic substrates between the iron‐ and the sulfate‐reducing microorganisms...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ground Water
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Measurement and analysis of aquifer-system compaction have been used to characterize aquifer and confining unit properties when other techniques such as flow modeling have been ineffective at adequately quantifying storage properties or matching historical water levels in environments experiencing land subsidence. In the southeastern coastal plain of Virginia, high-sensitivity borehole pipe extensometers were used to measure 24.2 mm of total compaction at Franklin from 1979 through 1995 (1.5 mm/year) and 50.2 mm of total compaction at Suffolk from 1982 through 1995 (3.7 mm/year). Analysis of the extensometer data reveals that the small rates of aquifer-system compaction appear to be correlated with withdrawals of...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ground Water
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Temporal scaling in stream discharge and hydraulic heads in riparian wells was evaluated to determine the feasibility of using spectral analysis to identify potential surface and groundwater interaction. In floodplains where groundwater levels respond rapidly to precipitation recharge, potential interaction is established if the hydraulic head (h) spectrum of riparian groundwater has a power spectral density similar to stream discharge (Q), exhibiting a characteristic breakpoint between high and low frequencies. At a field site in Walnut Creek watershed in central Iowa, spectral analysis of h in wells located 1 m from the channel edge showed a breakpoint in scaling very similar to the spectrum of Q (~20 h), whereas...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ground Water
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Boreholes drilled through contaminated zones in fractured rock create the potential for vertical movement of contaminated ground water between fractures. The usual assumption is that purging eliminates cross contamination; however, the results of a field study conducted in a trichloroethylene (TCE) plume in fractured sandstone with a mean matrix porosity of 13% demonstrates that matrix‐diffusion effects can be strong and persistent. A deep borehole was drilled to 110 m below ground surface (mbgs) near a shallow bedrock well containing high TCE concentrations. The borehole was cored continuously to collect closely spaced samples of rock for analysis of TCE concentrations. Geophysical logging and flowmetering were...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ground Water
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A new method was developed for characterizing geohydrologic columns that extended >600 m deep at sites with as many as six discrete aquifers. This method was applied at 12 sites within the Southwest Florida Water Management District. Sites typically were equipped with multiple production wells, one for each aquifer and one or more observation wells per aquifer. The average hydraulic properties of the aquifers and confining units within radii of 30 to >300 m were characterized at each site. Aquifers were pumped individually and water levels were monitored in stressed and adjacent aquifers during each pumping event. Drawdowns at a site were interpreted using a radial numerical model that extended from land surface...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ground Water
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The cored materials are sediments that form a multilayered aquifer system of seven aquifers and eight confining units in the New Jersey Coastal Plain. High concentrations of sulfate in unweathered marine sediments indicate novel processes may be important factors influencing pore-water chemistry in confining units. -from Authors
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ground Water
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A late-winter cyclone classified as one of the most intense of the 20th century moved across the Southeastern states of Georgia and South Carolina and onto the Northeast during March 12-14, 1993. Record low barometric pressures were recorded in Augusta, Georgia (28.93 inches of mercury) and Columbia, South Carolina (28.63 inches of mercury) on March 13,1993, and pressures returned to normal values (near 3D inches of mercury) within one day following these record lows. This relatively unusual event provided an opportunity to examine the attendant water-level response in continuously monitored ground-water wells in regional Atlantic Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and Blue Ridge aquifers in the Southeast. Water levels in...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ground Water
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Ground-water pumpage for irrigation was measured at 32 sites on the eastern Snake River Plain in southern Idaho during 1983. Pumpage at these sites also was estimated by three commonly used methods, and pumpage estimates were compared to measured values to determine the accuracy of each estimate. Statistical comparisons of estimated and metered pumpage using an F-test showed that only estimates made using the instantaneous discharge method were not significantly different ( alpha equals 0. 01) from metered values. Pumpage estimates made using the power consumption method reflect variability in pumping efficiency among sites. Pumpage estimates made using the crop-consumptive use method reflect variability in water-management...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ground Water
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The direct-push permeameter (DPP) is a promising approach for obtaining high-resolution information about vertical variations in hydraulic conductivity (K) in shallow unconsolidated settings. This small-diameter tool, which consists of a short screened section with a pair of transducers inset in the tool near the screen, is pushed into the subsurface to a depth at which a K estimate is desired. A short hydraulic test is then performed by injecting water through the screen at a constant rate (less than 4 L/min) while pressure changes are monitored at the transducer locations. Hydraulic conductivity is calculated using the injection rate and the pressure changes in simple expressions based on Darcy's Law. In units...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ground Water
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The relative importance of advection and dispersion for both solute and vapor transport can be determined from type curves or concentration, flux, or cumulative flux. The dimensionless form of the type curves provides a means to directly evaluate the importance of mass transport by advection relative to that of mass transport by diffusion and dispersion. Type curves based on an analytical solution to the advection-dispersion equation are plotted in terms of dimensionless time and Peclet number. Flux and cumulative flux type curves provide additional rationale for transport regime determination in addition to the traditional concentration type curves. The extension of type curves to include vapor transport with phase...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ground Water
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We developed a model code to simulate a watershed's hydrology and the hydraulic response of an interconnected stream-aquifer system, and applied the model code to the Lower Republican River Basin in Kansas. The model code links two well-known computer programs: MODFLOW (modular 3-D flow model), which simulates ground water flow and stream-aquifer interaction; and SWAT (soil water assessment tool), a soil water budget simulator for an agricultural watershed. SWAT represents a basin as a collection of subbasins in terms of soil, land use, and weather data, and simulates each subbasin on a daily basis to determine runoff, percolation, evaporation, irrigation, pond seepages and crop growth. Because SWAT applies a lumped...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ground Water
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A conceptual model of eolian transport is proposed to address the widely distributed, high concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) observed in ground water in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Concentrations (30 to more than 1000 μg/L Cr+6) extend over thousands of square kilometers of ground water systems. It is hypothesized that the Cr is derived from weathering of chromium-rich pyroxenes and olivines present in ophiolite sequence of the adjacent Oman (Hajar) Mountains. Cr+3 in the minerals is oxidized to Cr+6 by reduction of manganese and is subsequently sorbed on iron and manganese oxide coatings of particles. When the surfaces of these particles are abraded in this arid environment, they...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ground Water
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Because of the ubiquitous nature of anthropogenic nitrate (NO 3-) in many parts of the world, determining background concentrations of NO3- in shallow ground water from natural sources is probably impossible in most environments. Present-day background must now include diffuse sources of NO3- such as disruption of soils and oxidation of organic matter, and atmospheric inputs from products of combustion and evaporation of ammonia from fertilizer and livestock waste. Anomalies can be defined as NO3- derived from nitrogen (N) inputs to the environment from anthropogenic activities, including synthetic fertilizers, livestock waste, and septic effluent. Cumulative probability graphs were used to identify threshold concentrations...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ground Water
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Hydrographs of stream discharge were analyzed to determine ground-water recharge for two small basins draining into Mirror Lake, New Hampshire. Two methods of hydrograph analysis developed for determining ground-water recharge were evaluated, the instantaneous recharge method and the constant recharge method. For the instantaneous recharge method, recharge is assumed to be instantaneous and uniform over the basin. For the constant recharge method, recharge is assumed to be constant and uniform over the basin for a period of weeks to months. Both methods require that a ground-water recession slope be determined. The recession slope is used directly in the calculation for the instantaneous recharge method, and it...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ground Water


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