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Partnership - Hawaii Fish Habitat Partnership Anchialine pools represent an inland waterbody type that is widespread but threatened throughout the Hawaiian Islands and is a key habitat type of concern to the Hawaii Fish Habitat Partnership. Anchialine pools, also known as fishponds in Hawaii, are near the coast and are land-locked bodies of water that have connections both to the sea, typically by high tides, as well as to local freshwater. These systems have been used for thousands of years for fish production by Native Hawaiians. The majority of remaining fishpond pools are located on the Kona coast and southern coastlines of the Big Island, the southeast coast of Maui, and on several small and widely separated...
Partnership - Hawaii Fish Habitat Partnership The Waipa Stream flows from lower Mount Waialeale to Hanalei Bay on the north shore of Kauai, Hawaii. Much of the upper Waipa Stream system still exhibits good quality aquatic habitat. However, the lower reaches of Waipa Stream were significantly degraded due to widespread and dense overgrowth of an invasive riparian tree known as hau ( Hibiscus tiliaceus). The in-stream habitat available for native aquatic fish and invertebrates was reduced by hau growth in the stream causing sediment and plant debris to fill up a stretch of the stream channel and creating unnatural barriers for migrating native fish and prawns that have to pass through this section of the stream...
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The saltwater triggerfish, humuhumunukunukuapua'a, is Hawaii's State fish and is well known for its long name. Hawaii is the only State in the United States with a tropical rain forest. Hawaii is the most isolated population center on the face of the earth. Hawaii is 2,390 miles (3,846 kilometers) from California; 3,850 miles (6,196 kilometers) from Japan; 4,900 miles (7,886 kilometers) from China; and 5,280 miles (8,497 kilometers) from the Philippines. The Waialua River is one of five navigable rivers in Hawaii. It drains off Waialeale Mountain, which averages 488 inches (1,240 centimeters) of rain per year and is considered the wettest spot on earth. Honolulu is the largest city in the world (it has the longest...
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Major population centers exist on most of the islands, particularly on O’ahu which has a densely populated urban core. Urban sprawl increased by 76,000 acres from 1982 to 2012, which equals about two percent of Hawaii’s land mass. Urbanization results in physical loss of aquatic habitat as well as polluted runoff and altered hydrology. The Hawaiian Department of Health in 2015 listed sediment, nutrients, and bacteria as the most common threats to aquatic ecosystems and human health and that the vast majority of impaired sites are marine areas. Development contributes excessive sedimentation through improperly constructed roads and drainage systems, poor construction practices, and to nutrient loading through landscape...
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Several species of riparian plants including the non-native red mangrove ( Rhizophora mangle) and hau bush ( Hibiscus tiliaceus) proliferated along lower stream channels and estuary banks, disrupting energy flow in affected systems (a key fish habitat process). These invasive plants excessively shade estuarine shorelines, add large amounts of decomposing leaf litter that reduces water quality, create physical barriers to fish and invertebrate migration, and displace native fish and bird species. A pilot project in Wai ‘Opae, Hawai’i evaluated if red mangrove could be controlled and ultimately eradicated 20 acres of this plant. A cooperative Partnership project was initiated in 2015 to remove a large stand of invasive...
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The largest of the eight main Hawaii Islands— Hawai’i, Maui, Molokai, O’ahu, and Kaua’i—have well-defined watersheds and perennial streams. There are 376 perennial streams on these islands, most of which start high in the mountains and high numerous waterfalls before they reach the ocean. Forty large stream systems form small stream-mouth estuaries at their confluence with the ocean. These estuaries are critical transition points for migratory fish species and represent the connecting point between inland and coastal systems. They are also important nursery habitat for many coastal marine reef fish during key life stages. Furthermore, Hawaii’s aquatic resources are considered to be absolutely...
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Human-caused modifications to surface and ground water systems throughout Hawaii have drastically altered natural hydrologic regimes (a key fish habitat process), which in turn have profoundly limited the distribution and population sizes of native aquatic fauna. Most water for cities comes from wells, although stream water is used in Upper and East Maui. However, smaller communities and agriculture often rely on surface water obtained through diversions. Irrigation systems have been built to support the cultivation of row crops, such as corn, tomatoes, sugar cane, and nut trees. They transfer large volumes of water from natural watercourses and groundwater and into networks of ditches, tunnels, flumes, reservoirs,...
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Almost 46 percent of the land in Hawaii is agricultural and includes most of coastal Kaua’i, western Maui, and the perimeter of the island of Hawai’i, which are areas assessed to be at high risk of aquatic habitat degradation. The dominant agricultural products are corn, vegetables, nuts, potted and landscape plants, and cattle. Poor farming practices lead to excessive sedimentation due to open, cultivated soil being exposed to erosion from rainfall and cattle overgrazing and trampling stream banks. The United States Department of Agriculture reported that nearly 5 tons/acre of soil eroded from agricultural land in Hawaii during 2012, an amount that is similar to Central Midwest. Sediment transported from agricultural...
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Hawaii is home to several unique freshwater goby species (called o`opu in Hawaiian), most of which are highly adapted and specialized to climb vertical waterfalls to get to spawning habitat. These species are under stress as the result of direct habitat loss from development and water withdrawal along with competition with non-native species and habitat fragmentation from barriers. Similarly, native prawns that are residents of enclosed brackish water bodies. known as anchialine pools, are also under stress from development pressures.
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For more about specific waters and projects the Hawaii Fish Habitat Partnership is working on, please see the following locations: Community-Based Restoration of the Kiholo Estuary-Fishpond Complex, Hawaii – see featured article Waipa Stream, Kauai – see featured article Lower He’eia Stream, Hawai’i Waipa Stream, Hawai’i


    map background search result map search result map Fish Habitat Partnerships Making a Difference in Kiholo Estuary-Fishpond Complex, Hawaii Description of Agriculture as a Human Activity Affecting Fish Habitat in Hawaii Summary of Scientific Findings for Hawaii Habitat Trouble for Freshwater Goby in Hawai'i Description of Reduced Water Flows as a Human Activity Affecting Fish Habitat in Hawaii Fish Habitat Partnership Activities for Hawaii Hawaii - Risk of Current Fish Habitat Degradation Map Facts About Hawai'i Description of Urban Land Use as a Human Activity Affecting Fish Habitat in Hawaii Description of Invasive Vegetation as a Human Activity Affecting Fish Habitat in Hawaii Fish Habitat Partnerships Making a Difference in Kiholo Estuary-Fishpond Complex, Hawaii Description of Agriculture as a Human Activity Affecting Fish Habitat in Hawaii Summary of Scientific Findings for Hawaii Habitat Trouble for Freshwater Goby in Hawai'i Description of Reduced Water Flows as a Human Activity Affecting Fish Habitat in Hawaii Fish Habitat Partnership Activities for Hawaii Hawaii - Risk of Current Fish Habitat Degradation Map Facts About Hawai'i Description of Urban Land Use as a Human Activity Affecting Fish Habitat in Hawaii Description of Invasive Vegetation as a Human Activity Affecting Fish Habitat in Hawaii