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Biomass remains a key energy source for several billion people living in developing countries, and the production of liquid biofuels for transportation is growing rapidly. However, both traditional biomass energy and crop-based biofuels technologies have negative environmental and social impacts. The overall research challenge for bioenergy is to develop the technologies to produce useful products at low costs while minimizing the use of scarce resources such as arable land and water. This requires substantial advancements in modern biomass power generation and the success of liquid biofuel technologies that permit the use of lignocellulosic feedstocks or possibly algae. With such technologies, biomass resources...
Effect of seasonality of snow accumulation and melt on snow surface energy exchanges at a continental alpine site
Role of the Sahelian biosphere on the water and the CO sub(2) cycle during the HAPEX-Sahel experiment
Characteristics of energy and water budgets over wet sedge and tussock tundra ecosystems at North Slope in Alaska
Snow-albedo feedback and the spring transition in a regional climate system model: Influence of land surface model
Thermophilicity of Mycelial Fungi in the Context of Biochemical Adaptation to Thermal Stress (Review)
This factual and occasionally philosophical book examines the intimate relations between mankind and energy. The major goal of the volume is to provide readers with the knowledge necessary to make decisions on energy policies. The impact of energy throughout the history of man is traced. The present energy source options are described, as are the processes of energy conversion for human use, and methods to estimate future costs of energy sources. The conflicts of interest between conservationists and the power industry are discussed from a neutral perspective. Chapters are included on the following topics: Energy in Human History; How Mankind Uses Energy; Sources of Energy; Energy and Economics; New Fuels from Old...
Although giant calderas (“supervolcanoes”) may slumber for tens of thousands of years between eruptions, their abundant earthquakes and crustal deformation reveal the potential for future upheaval. Any eventual supereruption could devastate global human populations, so these systems must be carefully scrutinized. Insight into dormant but restless calderas can be gained by monitoring their output of heat and gas. At Yellowstone, the large thermal and CO2 fluxes require massive input of basaltic magma, which continues to invade the lower to mid-crust, sustains the overlying high-silica magma reservoir, and may result in volcanic hazard for millennia to come. The high flux of CO2 may contribute to the measured deformation...
This data set is a subset of the Spatial Hazard Events and Losses Databasefor the United States (SHELDUS Version 7.0) that was compiled by theUniversity of South Carolina. It portrays county-level hazard data forthe United States, for the years 2001 to 2009. Included is informationfor 17 different natural hazard event types, as well as the total cost ofdamage due to natural hazards. The event types included are avalanches,coastal events, drought, earthquakes, flooding, fog, hail, heat,hurricanes/tropical storms, landslides, lightning,severe storms/thunderstorms, tornadoes, tsunamis/seiches, wildfires,wind, and winter weather.For each event type, information is reported on property losses,crop losses, injuries, and...
Stream bed temperature profiles as indicators of percolation characteristics beneath arroyos in the middle Rio Grande basin, USA