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Biomass remains a key energy source for several billion people living in developing countries, and the production of liquid biofuels for transportation is growing rapidly. However, both traditional biomass energy and crop-based biofuels technologies have negative environmental and social impacts. The overall research challenge for bioenergy is to develop the technologies to produce useful products at low costs while minimizing the use of scarce resources such as arable land and water. This requires substantial advancements in modern biomass power generation and the success of liquid biofuel technologies that permit the use of lignocellulosic feedstocks or possibly algae. With such technologies, biomass resources...
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We installed an eddy covariance station on July 10, 2018 at Bison Flat, an acid-sulfate, vapor-dominated area (0.04-km2) in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, WY to monitor variations in hydrothermal gas and heat emissions. Since then, this station has measured CO2, H2O and sensible and latent heat fluxes, air temperature and pressure, and wind speed and direction on a half-hourly basis. We also measured soil CO2 fluxes and temperatures on a grid using the accumulation chamber method and thermocouple probes, respectively, on July 11-12, 2018 and soil CO2 fluxes only on June 25, 2019. On July 10, 2018 and June 24, 2019, we collected fumarole gas samples for analysis of bulk chemical and carbon (d13C-CO2)...
This factual and occasionally philosophical book examines the intimate relations between mankind and energy. The major goal of the volume is to provide readers with the knowledge necessary to make decisions on energy policies. The impact of energy throughout the history of man is traced. The present energy source options are described, as are the processes of energy conversion for human use, and methods to estimate future costs of energy sources. The conflicts of interest between conservationists and the power industry are discussed from a neutral perspective. Chapters are included on the following topics: Energy in Human History; How Mankind Uses Energy; Sources of Energy; Energy and Economics; New Fuels from Old...
Although giant calderas (“supervolcanoes”) may slumber for tens of thousands of years between eruptions, their abundant earthquakes and crustal deformation reveal the potential for future upheaval. Any eventual supereruption could devastate global human populations, so these systems must be carefully scrutinized. Insight into dormant but restless calderas can be gained by monitoring their output of heat and gas. At Yellowstone, the large thermal and CO2 fluxes require massive input of basaltic magma, which continues to invade the lower to mid-crust, sustains the overlying high-silica magma reservoir, and may result in volcanic hazard for millennia to come. The high flux of CO2 may contribute to the measured deformation...


map background search result map search result map Long-term gas and heat emissions measurements, Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park Long-term gas and heat emissions measurements, Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park