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The use of biomass crops as an energy source is frequently mentioned as an option to reduce CO 2 emissions. To evaluate the possibilities reliable yield estimates of biomass crops are required. In this paper a simple method is developed to estimate regional yields of various biomass crops, based on the linear relation between intercepted light and biomass production. The quality of the estimates was studied by using the method to estimate yields of several agricultural crops in two regions in The Netherlands. In general a deviation of less than 10 % was found between actual and estimated average yield.
An unsaturated-zone transport model was used to examine the transport and fate of metolachlor applied to an agricultural site in Maryland, USA. The study site was instrumented to collect data on soil-water content, soil-water potential, ground water levels, major ions, pesticides, and nutrients from the unsaturated zone during 2002-2004. The data set was enhanced with site-specific information describing weather, soils, and agricultural practices. The Root Zone Water Quality Model was used to simulate physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in the unsaturated zone. Model calibration to bromide tracer concentrations indicated flow occurred through the soil matrix. Simulated recharge rates were within...
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Land management practices often directly alter vegetation structure and composition, but the degree to which ecological processes such as herbivory interact with management to influence biodiversity is less well understood. We hypothesized that intensive forest management and large herbivores have compounding effects on early-seral plant communities and plantation establishment (i.e., tree survival and growth), and the degree of such effects is dependent on the intensity of management practices. We established 225 m2 wild ungulate (deer and elk) exclosures nested within a manipulated gradient of management intensity (no-spray Control, Light herbicide, Moderate herbicide and Intensive herbicide treatments), replicated...
Past climate changes have led to considerable changes in the species composition of ecosystems. The recent increase in average global temperature is rather strong compared to previous warming periods and, if climate models are correct, future warming will be even stronger. Especially in Europe where the landscape has been greatly fragmented by human activities, the ongoing and projected changes in climate will pose an additional stress on the natural biodiversity. This paper will discuss a method for the selection of bio-indicators to assess the possible landscape-ecological effects of climate change, and presents some preliminary results of the selection of indicator species for the Netherlands.
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Hybrid sunflower production occurs near Sacramento in Northern California where seed treatments are commonly used. In this study, four locations were sampled in 2016 as matched pairs; half of each field was sown with thiamethoxam treated seed and half without. In addition to the thiamethoxam seed treatment, all seeds were coated with two fungicides, fludioxonil and mefenoxam/metalaxyl. Both wild bee and honey bee pesticide exposure was assessed by analyzing field soil, sunflower pollen and nectar, honey bees (pollen and nectar foraging) and a sunflower specialist wild bee, Melissodes agilis. Samples were extracted via pressurized liquid extraction (except nectar which underwent a room temperature solvent extraction)...
Climate change results in an alteration of spatial and temporal patterns of climate hazards. The trend in weather related disaster seems upward. Various socio-economic sectors are affected by these changes, e.g. the disaster reduction institutions and the insurance industry. We report about an ongoing project addressing the vulnerabilities of sectors affected and policy options in various sectors, notably "Storms over NW-Europe", "the insurance sector" (both as a sector impacted by change and as a mechanism to cope with risk) and "cyclones in the South Pacific".
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Land management practices often directly alter vegetation structure and composition, but the degree to which ecological processes such as herbivory interact with management to influence biodiversity is less well understood. We hypothesized that intensive forest management and large herbivores have compounding effects on early-seral plant communities and plantation establishment (i.e., tree survival and growth), and the degree of such effects is dependent on the intensity of management practices. We established 225 m2 wild ungulate (deer and elk) exclosures nested within a manipulated gradient of management intensity (no-spray Control, Light herbicide, Moderate herbicide and Intensive herbicide treatments), replicated...
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Land management practices often directly alter vegetation structure and composition, but the degree to which ecological processes such as herbivory interact with management to influence biodiversity is less well understood. We hypothesized that intensive forest management and large herbivores have compounding effects on early-seral plant communities and plantation establishment (i.e., tree survival and growth), and the degree of such effects is dependent on the intensity of management practices. We established 225 m2 wild ungulate (deer and elk) exclosures nested within a manipulated gradient of management intensity (no-spray Control, Light herbicide, Moderate herbicide and Intensive herbicide treatments), replicated...
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Surface water samples were collected from four stream/agricultural drain sites in the Sacramento Valley of California to measure pesticides commonly applied to rice. Samples were collected weekly from May through August 2010 to capture the rice pesticide application season. Water samples were filtered (0.7 µm) and extracted via solid-phase extraction. Additionally, the filter paper was solvent extracted to measure suspended sediment-associated pesticides. Both fractions were analyzed via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 89 pesticides and pesticide degradates were measured in the dissolved water phase, while 14 pyrethroid insecticides were measured in the suspended sediment-associated fraction (pyrethroids...
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These data were released prior to the October 1, 2016 effective date for the USGS’s policy dictating the review, approval, and release of scientific data as referenced in USGS Survey Manual Chapter 502.8 Fundamental Science Practices: Review and Approval of Scientific Data for Release. This data set contains annual county-level estimates of total atrazine use on 16 agricultural crops and four agricultural land uses between 1992 and 2007. For each year, atrazine use was estimated for all counties in the conterminous U.S. (except California) by combining (1) proprietary data from the DMRKynetec (DMRK) AgroTrak database on the mass of atrazine applied annually to agricultural crops, (2) county harvested crop acreage,...
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Herbicide treatments were applied to Zerene silverspot (Speyeria = Argynnis zerene zerene) post-diapause larvae and early blue violets (Viola adunca), the larval host plant of the Zerene silverspot butterfly, in two greenhouse experiments in 2018-2019. Treatments included distilled water for untreated (U), Agri-Dex (A), Nu Film IR (N), clopyralid (C), clopyralid with Agri-Dex (CA), clopyralid with Nu Film IR (CN), fluazifop-p-butyl (F), fluazifop-p-butyl with Agri-Dex (FA), and fluazifop-p-butyl with Nu Film IR (FN). Zerene silverspot responses measured in the 2018 experiment included larval and pupal survival, sex ratio, larval and pupal development time, pupal and adult mass, adult morphology, female fecundity,...
To assess the economic consequences of environmental taxation a general equilibrium model is applied. The model contains 60 firm sectors and 44 household groups, which makes it especially suitable to analyse the sectoral and distributional effects of environmental taxes. These sectoral effects are rather large and diverse in comparison to the macro-economic consequences. After a short overview of the relevant literature, the original model and the model adaptations are described. These model adaptations include an iterative procedure to avoid substantial linearisation errors when large impulses are simulated. Possible model simulations are identified and the working programme is presented.
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Oklahoma State University South-Central Research Station (SCRS) was used to conduct research to understand the chemical composition of various water types and their potential environmental and human health effects. The study area provided the opportunity to study five water types: (1) receiving surface water (Washita River), (2) urban stormwater, (3) wastewater treatment plant effluent used for irrigation, (4) rain-induced runoff from an effluent-irrigated cornfield, and (5) rain-induced runoff from a dryland cornfield. Fifteen water samples were collected from August 2018 to October 2019. In addition, two composite above ground whole-corn plant samples (i.e., stem, leaves, grain) were collected from the effluent...
We completed nine focus groups on perceptions of powerline right-of-way (ROW) management issues. In these groups we interviewed eastern Tennessee residents to determine the nature and range of knowledge and views regarding vegetation management, ROWs as wildlife habitat, and ROW aesthetics. We also conducted an extensive literature review to adduce other pertinent data. Participants in focus groups exhibited a wide range of attitudes and beliefs about the interview topics. Some associated wildlife habitat with areas devoid of humans ("wilderness" or "sanctuary"), whereas others thought of habitat as close as "my backyard." A majority referred to habitat in relatively objective terms such as "food, water, and cover"...
We completed nine focus groups on perceptions of powerline right-of-way (ROW) management issues. In these groups we interviewed eastern Tennessee residents to determine the nature and range of knowledge and views regarding vegetation management, ROWs as wildlife habitat, and ROW aesthetics. We also conducted an extensive literature review to adduce other pertinent data. Participants in focus groups exhibited a wide range of attitudes and beliefs about the interview topics. Some associated wildlife habitat with areas devoid of humans ("wilderness" or "sanctuary"), whereas others thought of habitat as close as "my backyard." A majority referred to habitat in relatively objective terms such as "food, water, and cover"...
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To better understand the exposure of wild bees to pesticides in an agricultural landscape, samples were collected from fields in northern California. Hedgerows are known to provide habitat for wild bees, but these bees may also be exposed to pesticides from nearby agricultural fields. The study included eight hedgerow sites located in an intensively managed agricultural landscape that includes almonds, (wine) grapes, rice, tomatoes, and walnuts. In addition to collecting both wild bees and honey bees, soil, flowers, and silicone passive sampling devices (PSD; staked near the hedgerows to sample the air) were also included. Sampling was conducted from April to June 2016, to coincide with peak bloom and bee activity...
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Land management practices often directly alter vegetation structure and composition, but the degree to which ecological processes such as herbivory interact with management to influence biodiversity is less well understood. We hypothesized that intensive forest management and large herbivores have compounding effects on early-seral plant communities and plantation establishment (i.e., tree survival and growth), and the degree of such effects is dependent on the intensity of management practices. We established 225 m2 wild ungulate (deer and elk) exclosures nested within a manipulated gradient of management intensity (no-spray Control, Light herbicide, Moderate herbicide and Intensive herbicide treatments), replicated...
We completed nine focus groups on perceptions of powerline right-of-way (ROW) management issues. In these groups we interviewed eastern Tennessee residents to determine the nature and range of knowledge and views regarding vegetation management, ROWs as wildlife habitat, and ROW aesthetics. We also conducted an extensive literature review to adduce other pertinent data. Participants in focus groups exhibited a wide range of attitudes and beliefs about the interview topics. Some associated wildlife habitat with areas devoid of humans ("wilderness" or "sanctuary"), whereas others thought of habitat as close as "my backyard." A majority referred to habitat in relatively objective terms such as "food, water, and cover"...
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Arundo donax (Arundo Cane) is an invasive perennial reed that can grow more than 30 feet tall and has become established in riparian zones along rivers throughout the southwestern United States. It grows in thick stands, readily displaces native riparian habitat, and provides no habitat or food for native species in the ecosystems it disrupts (McWilliams, 2004). The Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board (TSSWCB) has been directed to develop and implement a program to eradicate Arundo Cane along the entire 1,255 mile length of the Rio Grande in Texas (Texas Senate Bill 1734). The TSSWCB has been using an ecosystem-based approach that integrates the use of biological, chemical, mechanical, and cultural controls...


    map background search result map search result map Forest management and cervid herbivory data from Western Oregon, USA, 2012 Forest management and cervid herbivory data from Western Oregon, USA, 2012 (Camera Data) Forest management and cervid herbivory data from Western Oregon, USA, 2012 (Community Data) Forest management and cervid herbivory data from Western Oregon, USA, 2012 (Seedling Data) Concentrations of pesticides in multiple matrices to measure exposure of wild bees visiting pollinator hedgerows in northern California Pesticide concentrations in surface waters of the Sacramento Valley rice-growing region, 2010 Pesticide concentrations in bees and other matrices collected from sunflower fields (with and without a neonicotinoid seed treatment) near Sacramento, California Pesticide Water-Quality Data Associated with Arundo donax (Arundo Cane) Treatment on a Section of the Rio Grande in Webb County, Texas, 2020 Data on Zerene silverspot butterfly and early blue violet responses to herbicide treatments from 2018-2019 greenhouse experiments Water-quality results from a wastewater reuse study: Inorganic and organic compositions of wastewater effluent and select urban and agricultural water types during rain-induced runoff, Chickasha, Oklahoma, 2018-2019 Annual county atrazine use estimates for agriculture, 1992-2007 Data on Zerene silverspot butterfly and early blue violet responses to herbicide treatments from 2018-2019 greenhouse experiments Concentrations of pesticides in multiple matrices to measure exposure of wild bees visiting pollinator hedgerows in northern California Pesticide Water-Quality Data Associated with Arundo donax (Arundo Cane) Treatment on a Section of the Rio Grande in Webb County, Texas, 2020 Forest management and cervid herbivory data from Western Oregon, USA, 2012 Forest management and cervid herbivory data from Western Oregon, USA, 2012 (Camera Data) Forest management and cervid herbivory data from Western Oregon, USA, 2012 (Community Data) Forest management and cervid herbivory data from Western Oregon, USA, 2012 (Seedling Data) Pesticide concentrations in surface waters of the Sacramento Valley rice-growing region, 2010 Water-quality results from a wastewater reuse study: Inorganic and organic compositions of wastewater effluent and select urban and agricultural water types during rain-induced runoff, Chickasha, Oklahoma, 2018-2019 Annual county atrazine use estimates for agriculture, 1992-2007