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The atmospheric water balance over the upper Colorado River is evaluated twice daily for the seven winter seasons 1957?1963. The atmospheric water balance yields the exchange of water and water vapor at the earth-atmosphere interface through the observation of the spatial and time distributions and fluxes of water vapor in the atmosphere over the basin. The quantity precipitation minus evaporation is determined as a residual of the computation and is accumulated for daily and seasonal values. In addition, a natural period analysis is performed; the natural periods are delineated by homogeneity in the parameter precipitation minus evaporation. The dry periods are shown to exhibit a seasonal trend in evaporation rate...
Terrestrial waters—including snowpack, glaciers, water in aquifers and other geological formations, water in the plant root zone, rivers, lakes, man-made reservoirs, wetlands, and inundated areas—represent less than a mere 1% of the total amount of water on Earth. However, they have a crucial impact on terrestrial life and human needs and play a major role in climate variability.Land waters are continuously exchanged with the atmosphere and oceans in vertical and horizontal mass fluxes through evaporation, transpiration, and surface and subsurface runoff. Although it is now recognized that improved description of the terrestrial branch of the global water cycle is of major importance for climate research and for...