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Reconstruction of continental palaeoclimate and palaeohydrology is currently hampered by limited information about isotopic patterns in the modern hydrologic cycle. To remedy this situation and to provide baseline data for other isotope hydrology studies, more than 4800, depth- and width-integrated, stream samples from 391 selected sites within the USGS National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) and Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN) were analysed for δ18O and δ2H (http://water.usgs.gov/pubs/ofr/ofr00-160/pdf/ofr00-160.pdf). Each site was sampled bimonthly or quarterly for 2·5 to 3 years between 1984 and 1987. The ability of this dataset to serve as a proxy for the isotopic composition of modern precipitation...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Hydrological Processes
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Soils in post‐wildfire environments are often characterized by a low infiltration capacity with a high degree of spatial heterogeneity relative to unburned areas. Debris flows are frequently initiated by run‐off in recently burned steeplands, making it critical to develop and test methods for incorporating spatial variability in infiltration capacity into hydrologic models. We use Monte Carlo simulations of run‐off generation over a soil with a spatially heterogenous saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) to derive an expression for an aerially averaged saturated hydraulic conductivity ( ) that depends on the rainfall rate, the statistical properties of Ks, and the spatial correlation length scale associated with...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Hydrological Processes
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Quantifying biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen (N) and the associated fluxes to surface waters remains challenging, given the need to deal with spatial and temporal variability and to characterize complex and heterogeneous landscapes. We focused our study on catchments S14 and S15 located in the Adirondack Mountains of New York, USA, which have similar topographic and hydrologic characteristics but contrasting stream nitrate ($\hbox{NO}_{3}^{-}$) concentrations. We characterized the mechanisms by which $\hbox{NO}_{3}^{-}$ reaches the streams during hydrological events in these catchments, aiming to reconcile our field data with our conceptual model of factors that regulate nutrient exports from forested catchments....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Hydrological Processes
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Trends in precipitation and surface water chemistry at a network of 15 small watersheds ( < 10 km2) in the USA were evaluated using a statistical test for monotonic trends (the seasonal Kendall test) and a graphical smoothing technique for the visual identification of trends. Composite precipitation samples were collected weekly and surface water samples were collected at least monthly. Concentrations were adjusted before trend analysis, by volume for precipitation samples and by flow for surface water samples. A relation between precipitation and surface water trends was not evident either for individual inorganic solutes or for solute combinations, such as ionic strength, at most sites. The only exception was...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Hydrological Processes
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Digital elevation models (DEMs) can be used to derive a wealth of information about the morphology of a land surface. Traditional raster analysis methods can be used to derive slope, aspect, and shaded relief information; recently-developed computer programs can be used to delineate depressions, overland flow paths, and watershed boundaries. These methods were used to delineate watershed boundaries for a geochemical stream sediment survey, to compare the results of extracting slope and flow paths from DEMs of varying resolutions, and to examine the geomorphology of a Martian DEM. -Author
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Hydrological Processes
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An on-board technique was developed that combined discharge-weighted pumping to a high-speed continuous-flow centrifuge for isolation of the particulate-sized material with ultrafiltration for isolation of colloid-sized material. In order to address whether these processes changed the particle sizes during isolation, samples of particles in suspension were collected at various steps in the isolation process to evaluate changes in particle size. Particle sizes were determined using laser light-scattering photon correlation spectroscopy and indicated no change in size during the colloid isolation process. Mississippi River colloid particle sizes from twelve sites from Minneapolis to below New Orleans were compared...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Hydrological Processes
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We studied the temporal patterns of tracer throughput in the outflow of large (30 cm diameter by 38 cm long) undisturbed cores from the Panola Mountain Research Watershed, Georgia. Tracer breakthrough was affected by soil structure and rainfall intensity. Two rainfall intensities (20 and 40 mm hr-1) for separate Cl- and Br- amended solutions were applied to two cores (one extracted from a hillslope soil and one extracted from a residual clay soil on the ridge). For both low and high rainfall intensity experiments, preferential flow occurred in the clay core, but not in the hillslope core. The preferential flow is attributed to well-developed interpedal macrochannels that are commonly found in structured clay soils,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Hydrological Processes
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Reliable information on catchment scale suspended sediment sources is required to inform the design of management strategies for helping abate the numerous environmental issues associated with enhanced sediment mobilization and off-site loadings. Since sediment fingerprinting techniques avoid many of the logistical constraints associated with using more traditional indirect measurement methods at catchment scale, such approaches have been increasingly reported in the international literature and typically use data sets collected specifically for sediment source apportionment purposes. There remains scope for investigating the potential for using geochemical data sets assembled by routine monitoring programmes to...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Hydrological Processes
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Suspended sediment, sediment-associated, total trace element, phosphorus (P), and total organic carbon (TOC) fluxes were determined for the Mississippi, Columbia, Rio Grande, and Colorado Basins for the study period (the 1996, 1997, and 1998 water years) as part of the US Geological Survey's redesigned National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) programme. The majority (??? 70%) of Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Ba, P, As, Fe, Mn, and Al are transported in association with suspended sediment; Sr transport seems dominated by the dissolved phase, whereas the transport of Li and TOC seems to be divided equally between both phases. Average dissolved trace element levels are markedly lower than reported during the original...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Hydrological Processes
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Surface water draining granitic bedrock in Yosemite National Park exhibits considerable variability in chemical composition, despite the relative homogeneity of bedrock chemistry. Other geological factors, including the jointing and distribution of glacial till, appear to exert strong controls on water composition. Chemical data from three surface water surveys in the upper Merced River basin conducted in August 1981, June 1988 and August 1991 were analysed and compared with mapped geological, hydrological and topographic features to identify the solute sources and processes that control water chemistry within the basin during baseflow. Water at most of the sampling sites was dilute, with alkalinities ranging from...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Hydrological Processes
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Wood deposited in streams provides a wide variety of ecosystem functions, including enhancing habitat for key species in stream food webs, increasing geomorphic and hydraulic heterogeneity and retaining organic matter. Given the strong role that wood plays in streams, factors that influence wood inputs, retention and transport are critical to stream ecology. Wood entrapment, the process of wood coming to rest after being swept downstream at least 10 m, is poorly understood, yet important for predicting stream function and success of restoration efforts. Data on entrapment were collected for a wide range of natural wood pieces (n = 344), stream geomorphology and hydraulic conditions in nine streams along the north...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Hydrological Processes
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The National Weather Service's Snow Data Assimilation (SNODAS) program provides daily, gridded estimates of snow depth, snow water equivalent (SWE), and related snow parameters at a 1-km2 resolution for the conterminous USA. In this study, SNODAS snow depth and SWE estimates were compared with independent, ground-based snow survey data in the Colorado Rocky Mountains to assess SNODAS accuracy at the 1-km2 scale. Accuracy also was evaluated at the basin scale by comparing SNODAS model output to snowmelt runoff in 31 headwater basins with US Geological Survey stream gauges. Results from the snow surveys indicated that SNODAS performed well in forested areas, explaining 72% of the variance in snow depths and 77% of...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Hydrological Processes
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Changes in the macroinvertebrate community in response to flow variations in the Little Stour River, Kent, UK, were examined over a 6 year period (1992-1997). This period included the final year of the 1988-1992 drought, followed by some of the wettest conditions recorded this century and a second period of drought between 1996 and 1997. Each year, samples were collected from 15 sites during late-summer base-flow conditions. Correspondence analysis identified clear differences between samples from upstream and downstream sites, and between drought and non-drought years. Step-wise multiple regression was used to identify hydrological indicators of community variation. Several different indices were used to describe...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Hydrological Processes
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A summary is provided of the first of a series of proposed Integrated Science Initiative workshops supported by the UNESCO International Hydrological Programme. The workshop brought together hydrologists, environmental chemists, microbiologists, stable isotope specialists and natural resource managers with the purpose of communicating new ideas on ways to assess microbial degradation processes and reactive transport at catchment scales. The focus was on diffuse contamination at catchment scales and the application of compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) in the assessment of biological degradation processes of agrochemicals. Major outcomes were identifying the linkage between water residence time distribution...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Hydrological Processes
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Because it commonly generates high-speed, high-volume flow with minimal exposure to solid earth materials, preferential flow in the unsaturated zone is a dominant influence in many problems of infiltration, recharge, contaminant transport, and ecohydrology. By definition, preferential flow occurs in a portion of a medium – that is, a preferred part, whether a pathway, pore, or macroscopic subvolume. There are many possible classification schemes, but usual consideration of preferential flow includes macropore or fracture flow, funneled flow determined by macroscale heterogeneities, and fingered flow determined by hydraulic instability rather than intrinsic heterogeneity. That preferential flow is spatially concentrated...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Hydrological Processes
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To better understand storage-runoff dynamics, transient groundwater responses were examined in one of the steep watersheds in British Columbia's coastal mountains. Streamflow and piezometric data were collected for 1year to determine the spatial and temporal relations between transient groundwater levels and discharge. Correlations between piezometer responses and lag-time analysis were used to identify and better understand runoff generation mechanisms in this watershed. Results showed a large spatial and temporal variation in transient water table dynamics and indicated that two distinct zones existed: a lower hillslope zone and an upslope zone. Each zone was characterized by very different water table responses....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Hydrological Processes
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A portion of applied pesticides runs off agricultural fields and is transported through surface waters. In this study, the behaviour of 39 pesticides is examined as a function of scale across 14 orders of magnitude from the field to the ocean. Data on pesticide loads in streams from two US Geological Survey programs were combined with literature data from field and watershed studies. The annual load as percent of use (LAPU) was quantified for each of the fields and watersheds and was used as the normalization factor across watersheds and compounds. The in-stream losses of each pesticide were estimated for a model stream with a 15 day travel time (similar in characteristics to the upper Mississippi River). These...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Hydrological Processes
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The composite method is an alternative method for estimating stream-water solute loads, combining aspects of two commonly used methods: the regression-model method (which is used by the composite method to predict variations in concentrations between collected samples) and a period-weighted approach (which is used by the composite method to apply the residual concentrations from the regression model over time). The extensive dataset collected at the outlet of the Panola Mountain Research Watershed (PMRW) near Atlanta, Georgia, USA, was used in data analyses for illustrative purposes. A bootstrap (subsampling) experiment (using the composite method and the PMRW dataset along with various fixed-interval and large...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Hydrological Processes
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Soil frost depth has been monitored at the Sleepers River Research Watershed in northeastern Vermont since 1984. Soil frost develops every winter, particularly in open fields, but its depth varies from year to year in inverse relation to snow depth. During the 15 years of record at a benchmark mid-elevation open site, the annual maximum frost depth varied from 70 to 390 mm. We empirically tested the hypothesis that frozen soil prevents infiltration and recharge, thereby causing an increased runoff ratio (streamflow/(rain + snowmelt)) during the snowmelt hydrograph rise and a decreased runoff ratio during snowmelt recession. The hypothesis was not supported at the 111 km2 W-5 catchment; there was no significant correlation...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Hydrological Processes
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Recharge varies spatially and temporally as it depends on a wide variety of factors (e.g. vegetation, precipitation, climate, topography, geology, and soil type), making it one of the most difficult, complex, and uncertain hydrologic parameters to quantify. Despite its inherent variability, groundwater modellers, planners, and policy makers often ignore recharge variability and assume a single average recharge value for an entire watershed. Relatively few attempts have been made to quantify or incorporate spatial and temporal recharge variability into water resource planning or groundwater modelling efforts. In this study, a simple, daily soil-water balance model was developed and used to estimate the spatial and...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Hydrological Processes