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Advocates consideration of actual material at hand with the expected completeness at any time scale. -from Author
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Geology
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A major submerged terrace whose seaward edge is at about 150 m depth was investigated in 1983 during 10 dives with the Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory (HURL) submersible Makali'i off Kealakekua Bay, Hawaii. The seaward termination of the terrace is a steep wall of reef limestone that extends from 150 to 250 m below sea level. Three samples of limestone collected from the reef face at depths of 204-219 m yield a weighted average 14C age of 13 250 yr BP. The best fit of depth, age, and subsidence data indicates that the northwestern coast of Hawaii has subsided at an absolute rate of 1.8 to 3+ mm/yr and that the rate of subsidence has generally increased over the past 0.3 Myr. Each reef terrace grew intermittently...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Geology
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The composition, chronology, and structural relations of the Saskatchewan Craton and enveloping mylonitic rocks exposed in basement windows of the Glennie Domain, Trans-Hudson Orogen, have been determined by geochemical, geochronologic, and structural studies accompanying detailed field mapping. Basement windows lie along the hinge zone of a regional crustal culmination and consist mostly of 2.4-2.5 Ga felsic plutonic rocks enveloped by the Nistowiak Thrust. The Nistowiak Thrust is a folded, 1-2 km thick, upper amphibolite facie??s mylonite zone formed during emplacement of the Flin Flon-Glennie Complex across the Saskatchewan Craton. It is likely correlative to the Pelican Thrust, which envelops basement windows...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Geology
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Late Cenozoic fluvial deposits and erosional landforms in the New Jersey Piedmont record two episodes of valley incision, one in the Late Miocene and one in the Early Pleistocene, separated by periods of planation and fluvial deposition. The upland erosion surface and a fluvial gravel are the remnants of a low-relief Late Miocene landscape. Late Miocene incision was followed by deposition of a fluvial plain and cutting of straths in the Pliocene. Early Pleistocene incision produced the present valleys, which contain Middle to Late Pleistocene fluvial deposits. The two incisions correspond to permanent glacioeustatic lowering during expansion of the Antarctic ice sheet in the Middle to Late Miocene and development...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Geology
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Abundance of antimony in bulk samples has been determined in five selected coals, three coals from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, and two from the Illinois Basin in the United States. The Sb abundance in these samples is in the range of 0.11-0.43 ??g/g. The forms of Sb in coals were studied by sequential solvent extraction. The six forms of Sb are water soluble, ion changeable, organic matter bound, carbonate bound, silicate bound, and sulfide bound. Results of sequential extraction show that silicate-bound Sb is the most abundant form in these coals. Silicate- plus sulfide-bound Sb accounts for more than half of the total Sb in all coals. Bituminous coals are higher in organic matterbound Sb than anthracite and...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Geology
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Escanaba Trough is the southernmost segment of the Gorda Ridge and is filled by sandy turbidites locally exceeding 500 m in thickness. New results from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 1037 and 1038 that include accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dates and revised petrographic evaluation of the sediment provenance, combined with high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, provide a lithostratigraphic framework for the turbidite deposits. Three fining-upward units of sandy turbidites from the upper 365 m at ODP Site 1037 can be correlated with sediment recovered at ODP Site 1038 and Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) Site 35. Six AMS 14C ages in the upper 317 m of the sequence at Site 1037 indicate that average...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Geology
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U-Pb ages measured on zircons from the Tobacco Root Mountains and monazite from the Highland Mountains indicate that the northwestern Wyoming province experienced an episode of high-grade metamorphism at ???1.77 Ga. Leucosome emplaced in Archean gneisses from the Tobacco Root Mountains contains a distinctive population of zircons with an age of 1.77 Ga but also contains zircons to ???3.5 Ga; it is interpreted to have been derived primarily by anatexis of nearby Archean schist. A granulite facies mafic dike that cuts across Archean gneissic banding in the Tobacco Root Mountains contains two distinct populations of zircons. A group of small (<50 ??m) nonprismatic grains is interpreted to be metamorphic and yields...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Geology
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Plateau-side terraces in arid areas around the world are commonly described as pediment remnants, although, in many cases, they may have been formed by debris-flow deposition. Pediments do exist in the area of the Aquarius and Kaiparowits Plateaus of southern Utah; however, many alluvial terraces that were classified by previous workers as pediments are actually formed of thick deposits of sediment released into valleys by episodic landslide events. Although both pediment and debris-flow depositional terraces have smooth, alluvium-covered upper surfaces, the two can be distinguished by the shape of the underlying bedrock surface and the process of formation. The relation of younger terraces to landsliding is clear,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Geology
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High wind velocities created eolian features and effects of a magnitude not previously reported in the literature. 3 principal mechanisms of sediment movement by wind were studied by examining the size distribution of deposits in telephone poles (saltation and suspension), feeder pens and abandoned buildings (saltation and suspension), and gravel ripples (surface creep). -Author
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Geology
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An extensive fault-bounded amphibolite terrane of Late Jurassic (145 ?? 2 Ma) metamorphic age occurring in the northeastern Klamath Mountains of southern Oregon has been recognized as the remnants of an ancient back-arc basin. In spite of thorough metamorphic recrystallization under amphibolite-facies conditions, the amphibolite locally displays relict igneous textures which suggest that the protoliths included basaltic dikes or sills, shallow diabase intrusions, and gabbros. The geochemical data, together with the present-day geologic context, indicate that the tectonic setting of eruption/intrusion was probably within a back-arc basin that existed inboard (east) of a pre-Nevadan volcanic arc. The basalt (now amphibolite)...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Geology
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In 1964 A.B.Shaw presented a method of correlating fossilferous sedimentary rocks based on interpretation of graphic plots of first- and last-occurrences of taxa. Because there is no way to determine the true total ranges of fossil taxa, it is instructive to test the accuracy of the method using hypothetical datasets. The dataset used here consists of 16 taxa in six sections with differing known rates of rock accumulation. In all graphs, a single straight-line correlation was a reasonable interpretation. The resulting ranges after the first and third rounds of compositing reproduce the 'true' ranges but with small errors. Slight errors in the positioning of individual correlation lines are more likely to lengthen...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Geology
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Recognition that the Fisher Tuff (Unimak Island, Alaska) was deposited on the leeside of an ∼500–700‐m‐high mountain range (Tugamak Range) more than 10 km away from its source played a major role in defining pyroclastic flows as momentum‐driven currents. We reexamined the Fisher Tuff to evaluate whether deposition from expanded turbulent clouds can better explain its depositional features. We studied the tuff at 89 sites and sieved bulk samples from 27 of those sites. We find that the tuff consists of a complex sequence of deposits that record the evolution of the eruption from a buoyant plume (22 km) that deposited ∼0.2 km3 of dacite magma as a pyroclastic fall layer to erupting ∼10–100 km3 of andesitic magma as...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Geology
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The determination of the total age coverage of pelagic bedded chert is particularly important in studies of ancient accretionary complexes because the time span represents the minimum travel time of an oceanic plate before accretion at an island arc or continental margin. The Yolla Bolly terrane of the Franciscan Complex consists of rare metabasalt overlain by bedded radiolarian chert which in turn is overlain by metagraywacke and subordinate slaty mudstone and conglomerate. The bedded chert ranges in age from Aaleian (early Middle Jurassic) to Tithonian (latest Jurassic). A lithologic gradation from pelagic bedded chert through hemipelagic siliceous mudstone occurred during the Tithonian and thus marks the arrival...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Geology
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The Belén flora, in north coastal Peru, is the most diverse fruit and seed assemblage known from the Paleogene of South America. Almost no original paleobotanical work has been done on this assemblage since the pioneering treatments published by E.W. Berry, in the 1920’s and the precise age has not been settled. Nevertheless, the flora has been regarded as an important focal point in understanding the vegetational, orogenic and climatic history of northern South America, and in recent literature has been assumed to be early Eocene. In order to tighten the age assignment, which has varied from early Eocene to early Oligocene in the opinions of different authors, we revisited the Belén site, measured the stratigraphic...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Geology
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The clay minerals, micas, and feldspars of the Pennsylvanian-age Purington Shale have been more diagenetically active than generally recognized. They have undergone diagenetic changes comparable to those of Cenozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks buried three to four times as deeply and heated to approximately twice the temperature. The Purington Shale on the Western Shelf of the Illinois Basin has experienced maximum burial of ???1.0 km and was never heated to more than 60??C, except for a very brief time at about 80??C. The illite/smectite (I/S) of the Purington Shale has ???90% illite. The chemical compositions of the feldspar assemblage in the 0.09-0.063-mm fraction differ from most modern detrital suites of...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Geology
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We report geochronological and geochemical data for the calc-alkalic Lowland Creek volcanic field (LCVF) in westcentral Montana. 40Ar/ 39Ar age determinations show that the LCVF was active from 52.9 to 48.6 Ma, with tuff-forming eruptions at 52.9 ?? 0.14 and 51.8 ?? 0.14 Ma. These dates span the age range of vigorous Eocene igneous activity in the Kamloops-Absaroka-Challis belt. The LCVF evolved upward from basal rhyolites (SiO 2>71 wt%) to dacites and andesites (SiO 2 > 62 wt%). Compositional change parallels a transition from early explosive volcanism to late effusive activity. Four geochemical components can be detected in the rocks. A component with 206Pb/204Pb < 16.5 and epsilon;Nd near-15 is predominant in...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Geology
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One of the major unresolved issues of the Late Pleistocene catastrophic-flood events in the northwestern United States (e.g., from glacial Lake Missoula) has been what happened when the flood discharge reached the ocean. This study compiles available 3.5-kHz high-resolution and airgun seismic reflection data, long-range sidescan sonar images, and sediment core data to define the distribution of flood sediment in deepwater areas of the Pacific Ocean. Upon reaching the ocean at the mouth of the Columbia River near the present-day upper continental slope, sediment from the catastrophic floods continued flowing downslope as hyperpycnally generated turbidity currents. The turbidity currents resulting from the Lake Missoula...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Geology
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New 40Ar/39Ar and uranium-lead (U-Pb) zircon data from the Beaverhead impact structure, first identified by extensive shatter coning of Proterozoic quartzite and gneiss from the Beaverhead Mountains near the Montana-Idaho border, indicate that the structure formed at or after 900 Ma. The 40Ar/39Ar age spectra from fine-grained muscovite and biotite from a breccia zone in high-grade gneiss show significant argon loss but yield dates for highest-temperature steps that cluster between 899 and 908 Ma. The dated minerals probably formed by recrystallization of impact glass, so on both geologic and isotopic grounds, the dates probably represent the minimum age of impact. U-Pb data for zircons from the same breccia are...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Geology
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Increased study of submarine groundwater systems in recent years has provided a wealth of new data and techniques, but some ambiguity has been introduced by insufficient distinguishing of the relevant spatial scales of the phenomena studied. Submarine groundwater flow and discharge on passive continental margins can be most productively studied and discussed by distinct consideration of the following three spatial scales: (1) the nearshore scale, spanning approximately 0–10 m offshore and including the unconfined surficial aquifer; (2) the embayment scale, spanning approximately 10 m to as much as 10 km offshore and including the first confined submarine aquifer and its terminus; and (3) the shelf scale, spanning...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Geology


map background search result map search result map Oligocene age of the classic Belén fruit and seed assemblage of north coastal Peru based on diatom biostratigraphy Oligocene age of the classic Belén fruit and seed assemblage of north coastal Peru based on diatom biostratigraphy