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Hydrologists often attempt to estimate formation properties from aquifer tests for which only the hydraulic responses in a pumped well are available. Borehole storage, turbulent head losses, and borehole skin, however, can mask the hydraulic behavior of the formation inferred from the water level in the pumped well. Also, in highly permeable formations or in formations at significant depth below land surface, where there is a long column of water in the well casing, oscillatory water levels may arise during the onset of pumping to further mask formation responses in the pumped well. Usually borehole phenomena are confined to the early stages of pumping or recovery, and late-time hydraulic data can be used to estimate...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Hydrology
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Few detailed evaporation studies exist for small lakes or reservoirs in mountainous settings. A detailed evaporation study was conducted at Mirror Lake, a 0.15 km2 lake in New Hampshire, northeastern USA, as part of a long-term investigation of lake hydrology. Evaporation was determined using 14 alternate evaporation methods during six open-water seasons and compared with values from the Bowen-ratio energy-budget (BREB) method, considered the standard. Values from the Priestley-Taylor, deBruin-Keijman, and Penman methods compared most favorably with BREB-determined values. Differences from BREB values averaged 0.19, 0.27, and 0.20 mm d-1, respectively, and results were within 20% of BREB values during more than...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Hydrology
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Wells placed next to surface-water bodies to induce infiltration have come under scrutiny because of the presence of the potential pathogens in surface water. Removal of pathogens and other contaminants by bank filtration is assumed, but regulatory agencies question the effectiveness of this process. To investigate transport processes of biological constituents, advective groundwater traveltimes to production wells under the influence of surface water need to be established first to determine appropriate water-quality sampling schedules. This paper presents the results of a study of bank filtration at a well field in southwestern Ohio. Field parameters such as water level, specific conductance, and water temperature...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Hydrology
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Urban planners and managers need information about the local quantity of precipitation and the quality and quantity of storm runoff if they are to plan adequately for the effects of storm runoff from urban areas. As a result of this need, linear regression models were developed for the estimation of storm-runoff loads and volumes from physical, land-use, and climatic characteristics of urban watersheds throughout the United States. Three statistically different regions were delineated, based on mean annual rainfall, to improve linear regression models. One use of these models is to estimate storm-runoff loads and volumes at gaged and ungaged urban watersheds. The most significant explanatory variables in all linear...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Hydrology
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A trichloroethylene (TCE) plume has been identified in the groundwater under a U.S. Air Force Base in the Central Valley of California. An areal, two-dimensional numerical solute transport model indicates that the movement of TCE due to advection, dispersion, and linear sorption is simulated over a 25-year historic period. The model is used in several ways: (1) to estimate the extent of the plume; (2) to confirm the likely sources of contamination as suggested by a soil organic vapor survey of the site; and (3) to make predictions about future movement of the plume. Despite the noisy and incomplete data set, the model reproduces the general trends in contamination at a number of observation wells. The analysis indicates...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Hydrology
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Chemical hydrogeology, including organic and inorganic aspects, has contributed to an increased understanding of groundwater flow systems, geologic processes, and stressed environments. Most of the basic principles of inorganic-chemical hydrogeology were first established by investigations of organic-free, regional-scale systems for which simplifying assumptions could be made. The problems of groundwater contamination are causing a shift of emphasis to microscale systems that are dominated by organic-chemical reactions and that are providing an impetus for the study of naturally occurring and manmade organic material. Along with the decrease in scale, physical and chemical heterogeneity become major controls. Current...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Hydrology
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Flow-model particle-tracking results and geochemical data from seven study areas across the United States were analyzed using three statistical methods to test the hypothesis that these variables can successfully be used to assess public supply well vulnerability to arsenic and uranium. Principal components analysis indicated that arsenic and uranium concentrations were associated with particle-tracking variables that simulate time of travel and water fluxes through aquifer systems and also through specific redox and pH zones within aquifers. Time-of-travel variables are important because many geochemical reactions are kinetically limited, and geochemical zonation can account for different modes of mobilization...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Hydrology
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Aquifers of the peninsulas of Florida and northern Yucatan are Tertiary marine carbonate formations showing many lithologic and faunal similarities. In addition, the tropical to subtropical climates of the two areas are similar, each having annual rainfall of about 1000 to 1500 mm. Despite similarities in these fundamental controls, contrasts in the hydrologic and geochemical systems are numerous and striking. For example, Florida has many rivers; Yucatan has none. Maximum thickness of fresh ground water in Florida is about 700 meters; in the Yucatan it is less than 70 meters. In Florida the gradient of the potentiometric surface averages about 1 meter per kilometer; in the Yucatan it is exceedingly low, averaging...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Hydrology
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The permeability of a single hydrostratigraphic unit is associated with considerable uncertainty due to measurement errors and significant spatial variability. Historically this uncertainty is characterized by a lognormal distribution. This distribution is generally heavy tailed, so using this distribution to describe the permeability has the limitation that all positive values of permeability for a given hydrostratigraphic unit have positive (not zero) probability of occurrence. The beta distribution, with its bounded domain, is explored as an alternative to the lognormal distribution in describing the uncertainty of permeability. The lognormal distribution and the beta distribution are both fit to the historic...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Hydrology
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Dissolved (DOC) and total (TOC) organic carbon concentrations and compositions were studied for several river systems in Arizona, USA. DOC composition was characterized by ultraviolet and visible absorption and fluorescence emission (excitation wavelength of 370 nm) spectra characteristics. Ephemeral sites had the highest DOC concentrations, and unregulated perennial sites had lower concentrations than unregulated intermittent sites, regulated sites, and sites downstream from wastewater-treatment plants (p < 0.05). Reservoir outflows and wastewater-treatment plant effluent were higher in DOC concentration (p < 0.05) and exhibited less variability in concentration than inflows to the reservoirs. Specific ultraviolet...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Hydrology
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Distribution of seepage through lakebeds is controlled partly by geometric configuration of the lake and of the groundwater system interacting with the lake. To evaluate the effect of these factors, conductive-paper electric-analog models were used to analyze a number of lake and groundwater settings having different geometric configurations. Most settings analyzed are of lakes that do not penetrate the groundwater system. The width ratio, the ratio of half the lake width to thickness of the groundwater system, is the principal geometric characteristic used in this study. Because the distribution of groundwater seepage into a lake is not uniform across the lakebed, the concept of a streamlinecrowding factor is developed,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Hydrology
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A unified, multidiscipline hypothesis is proposed to explain the anomalous pattern by which chloride has been found in water of the Upper Floridan aquifer in Brunswick, Glynn County, Georgia. Analyses of geophysical, hydraulic, water chemistry, and aquifer test data using the equivalent porous medium (EPM) approach are used to support the hypothesis and to improve further the understanding of the fracture-flow system in this area. Using the data presented herein we show that: (1) four major northeast-southwest trending faults, capable of affecting the flow system of the Upper Floridan aquifer, can be inferred from structural analysis of geophysical data and from regional fault patterns; (2) the proposed faults account...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Hydrology
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Reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) commonly invades meadow wetlands, effectively dominating water use and outcompeting native plants. Objectives of this study were to (i) estimate daily, seasonal and annual water use by reed canarygrass using shallow water table fluctuations; and (ii) calibrate the ALMANAC (Agricultural Land Management Alternative with Numerical Assessment Criteria) model to accurately simulate water uptake by this grass. Using a groundwater well, the water table under an area in Iowa dominated by reed canarygrass was monitored hourly. Differences between water level measurements taken each hour were averaged to determine the hourly water table change in each month. Using these estimates of...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Hydrology
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The results of a 6 year recharge study in the Great Bend Prairie of central Kansas are statistically analyzed to regionalize the limited number of site-specific but year-round measurements. Emphasis is placed on easily measured parameters and field-measured data. The results of the statistical analysis reveal that a typical recharge event in central Kansas lasts 5-7 days, out of which 3 or 4 days are precipitation days with total precipitation of ??? 83 mm. The maximum soil-profile water storage and the maximum groundwater level resulting from the recharge event exhibit the lowest coefficients of variation, whereas the amount of recharge exhibits the highest coefficient of variation. The yearly recharge in the Great...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Hydrology
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The maximum rainfall-runoff floods measured by indirect methods in small basins (0.39-370 km2) in the conterminous United States are examined. This analysis identified twelve floods that were the largest ever measured. These floods all occurred in semiarid to arid areas. For eleven of the twelve largest rainfall-runoff floods measured in small basins by the slope-area method, values of hydraulic depth; hydraulic radius; width-depth ratio; n value; mean velocity; velocity-head coefficient; Froude number; water-surface, energy, and channel slopes; shear stress; and unit stream power are tabulated. Estimated composite n values weighted by subsection conveyance range from 0.028 to 0.048 with a mean of 0.038. Mean velocities...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Hydrology
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Inverse geochemical modeling (PHREEQC) was used to identify the evolution of groundwater with emphasis on arsenic (As) release under reducing conditions in the shallow (25-30 m) Mississippi River Valley Alluvial aquifer, Arkansas, USA. The modeling was based on flow paths defined by high-precision (??2 cm) water level contour map; X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopic (SEM), and chemical analysis of boring-sediments for minerals; and detailed chemical analysis of groundwater along the flow paths. Potential phases were constrained using general trends in chemical analyses data of groundwater and sediments, and saturation indices data (MINTEQA2) of minerals in groundwater. Modeling results show that...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Hydrology
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The stable isotope of oxygen, 18O, is used as a naturally occurring ground-water tracer. Time-series data for ??18O are analyzed to model the distinct responses and relative proportions of the conduit, intermediate, and diffuse flow components in karst aquifers. This analysis also describes mathematically the dynamics of the transient fluid interchange between conduits and diffusive networks. Conduit and intermediate flow are described by linear-systems methods, whereas diffuse flow is described by mass-balance methods. An automated optimization process estimates parameters of lognormal, Pearson type III, and gamma distributions, which are used as transfer functions in linear-systems analysis. Diffuse flow and mixing...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Hydrology
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This study identified and examined differences in Southeast Alaskan streamflow patterns between the two most recent modes of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). Identifying relationships between the PDO and specific regional phenomena is important for understanding climate variability, interpreting historical hydrological variability, and improving water-resources forecasting. Stream discharge data from six watersheds in Southeast Alaska were divided into cold-PDO (1947-1976) and warm-PDO (1977-1998) subsets. For all watersheds, the average annual streamflows during cold-PDO years were not significantly different from warm-PDO years. Monthly and seasonal discharges, however, did differ significantly between the...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Hydrology
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The Great Bend Prairie freshwater alluvial aquifer in south-central Kansas overlies a bedrock brine aquifer of Permian age. The continuous extraction of freshwater mainly for irrigation in this area has accelerated the upward movement of the saltwater, resulting in the deterioration of water quality. Predicting saltwater upconing is critical for maintaining a long-term supply of water of good quality to the Groundwater Management District No. 5. This paper uses a numerical model to predict the effect of saltwater upconing on the salinity of pumped water. A sensitivity analysis was conducted for estimating the effects of uncertainties in model parameters on the numerical results. The most important factors affecting...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Hydrology
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A multi-level slug test model and a method for the evaluation of vertical profiles of hydraulic conductivity in highly permeable formations are developed. A double-packer system is employed to estimate local hydraulic conductivity. Depending on the formation and double-packer system parameters, the water level recovery in the tested well can exhibit a monotonic or oscillatory response. To discern information on aquifer properties from artifacts introduced by the measurement system, the theory of flow in an aquifer and a double-packer system is developed. The mathematical model incorporates features of the Springer and Gelhar (1991) model and reduces to the Bouwer and Rice (1976) model in a special case. The model...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Hydrology