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Variations in the geochemistry and texture of amphibole phenocrysts erupted from Augustine Volcano in 2006 provide new insights into pre- and syn-eruptive magma storage and mixing. Amphiboles are rare but present in all magma compositions (low- to high-silica andesites) from the 3 month long eruption. Unzoned magnesiohornblende in the high- and low-silica andesites exhibit limited compositional variability, relatively high SiO2 (up to 49·7 wt %), and relatively low Al2O3 (< 11·1 wt %). Intermediate-silica andesites and quenched mafic enclaves contain amphiboles that vary in composition (e.g. SiO2 40·8–48·9 wt %, Al2O3 6·52–15·2 wt %) and classification (magnesiohornblende–magnesiohastingsite–tschermakite). Compositional...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Petrology
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Phenocrysts in porphyritic volcanic rocks may originate in a variety of ways in addition to nucleation and growth in the matrix in which they are found. Porphyritic rhyodacite lavas that underlie the eastern half of Mount Mazama, the High Cascade andesite/dacite volcano that contains Crater Lake caldera, contain evidence that bears on the general problem of phenocryst origin. Phenocrysts in these lavas apparently formed by crystallization near the margins of a magma chamber and were admixed into convecting magma before eruption. About 20 km3 of pre-Mazama rhyodacite magma erupted during a relatively short period between ~400 and 500 ka; exposed pre-Mazama dacites are older and less voluminous. The rhyodacites formed...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Petrology
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Jurassic kimberlites in the southern Superior Province in northern Michigan contain a variety of possible lower-crustal xenoliths, including mafic garnet granulites, rare garnet-free granulites, amphibolites and eclogites. Whole-rock major-element data for the granulites suggest affinities with tholeiitic basalts. P–T estimates for granulites indicate peak temperatures of 690–730°C and pressures of 9–12 kbar, consistent with seismic estimates of crustal thickness in the region. The granulites can be divided into two groups based on trace-element characteristics. Group 1 granulites have trace-element signatures similar to average Archean lower crust; they are light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched, with high La/Nb...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Petrology
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Quaternary lavas and pyroclastic rocks of Mount Mazama, Crater lake caldera, and the surrounding area have variable Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions. High-alumina olivine tholeiites have 87Ar/86Ar ratios of 0.70346-0.70364; basaltic andesite, 0.70349-0.70372; shoshonitic basaltic andesite, 0.70374-0.70388; and andesite, 0.70324-0.70383. Dacites of Mount Mazama have 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of 0.70348-0.70373. Most rhyodacites converge on 0.7037. Andesitic to mafic-cumulate scoriae of the climatic eruption, and enclaves in pre-climactic rhyodacites, cluster in two groups but show nearly the entire 87Sr/86Sr range of the data set, confirming previously suggested introduction of diverse parental magmas into the growing...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Petrology
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The compositionally bimodal Pleistocene Coso volcanic field is located at the western margin of the Basin and Range province ~ 60 km north of the Garlock fault. Thirty-nine nearly aphyric high-silica rhyolite domes were emplaced in the past million years: one at 1 Ma from a transient magma reservoir, one at ~ 0.6 Ma, and the rest since ~ 0.3 Ma. Over the past 0.6 My, the depth from which the rhyolites erupted has decreased and their temperatures have become slightly higher. Pre-eruptive conditions of the rhyolite magmas, calculated from phenocryst compositions using the two-oxide thermometer and the Al-in-hornblende barometer, ranged from 740??C and 270 MPa (2.7 kbar; ~ 10 km depth) for the ~ 0.6 Ma magma, to 770??C...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Petrology
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Locally, voluminous andesitic volcanism both preceded and followed large eruptions of silicic ash-flow tuff from many calderas in the San Juan volcanic field. The most voluminous post-collapse lava suite of the central San Juan caldera cluster is the 28 Ma Huerto Andesite, a diverse assemblage erupted from at least 5-6 volcanic centres that were active around the southern margins of the La Garita caldera shortly after eruption of the Fish Canyon Tuff. These andesitic centres are inferred, in part, to represent eruptions of magma that ponded and differentiated within the crust below the La Garita caldera, thereby providing the thermal energy necessary for rejuvenation and remobilization of the Fish Canyon magma body....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Petrology
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Quaternary monogenetic volcanism in the High Cascades of Oregon is manifested by cinder cones, lava fields, and small shields. Near Crater Lake caldera, monogenetic lava compositions include: low-K (as low as 0·09% K2O) high-alumina olivine tholeiite (HAOT); medium-K. calc-alkaline basalt, basaltic andesite, and andesite; and shoshonitic basaltic andesite (2·1% K2O, 1750 ppm Sr at 54% SiO2). Tholeiites have MORB-like trace element abundances except for elevated Sr, Ba, and Th and low high field strength elements (HFSE), and they represent near-primary liquids. They are similar to HAOTs from the Cascades and adjacent Basin and Range, and to many primitive basalts from intraoceanic arcs. Calc-alkaline lavas show a...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Petrology
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Products of the 1915 Lassen Peak eruption reveal evidence for a magma recharge-magma mixing event that may have catalyzed the eruption and from which four compositional members were identified: light dacite, black dacite, andesitic inclusion, and dark andesite. Crystal size distribution, textural, and in situ chemical (major and trace element and Sr isotope) data for plagioclase from these compositional products define three crystal populations that have distinct origins: phenocrysts (long axis > 0??5 mm) that typically have core An contents between 34 and 36 mol %, microphenocrysts (long axis between 0??1 and 0??5 mm) that have core An contents of 66-69, and microlites (long axis < 0??1 mm) with variable An core...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Petrology
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The Alaska-Aleutian island arc is well known for erupting both tholeiitic and calc-alkaline magmas. To investigate the relative roles of chemical and temporal controls in generating these contrasting liquid lines of descent we have undertaken a detailed study of tholeiitic lavas from Akutan volcano in the oceanic A1eutian arc and calc-alkaline products from Aniakchak volcano on the continental A1askan Peninsula. The differences do not appear to be linked to parental magma composition. The Akutan lavas can be explained by closed-system magmatic evolution, whereas curvilinear trace element trends and a large range in 87 Sr/86 Sr isotope ratios in the Aniakchak data appear to require the combined effects of fractional...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Petrology
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Basaltic rocks of the Cima Volcanic Field in the southern Basin and Range province contain abundant gabbro, pyroxenite, and peridotite xenoliths. Composite xenoliths containing two or more rock types show that upper-mantle spinel peridotite was enriched by multiple dike intrusions in at least three episodes; the mantle was further enriched by intergranular and shear-zone melt infiltration in at least two episodes. Because of their high densities, the gabbros and pyroxenites can occupy the zone immediately above the present Moho (modeled on seismic data as 10-13 km thick, with Vp 6.8 km/s) only if their seismic velocities are reduced by the joints, partial melts, and fluid inclusions that occur in them. Alternatively,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Petrology
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The evolution of polygenetic and monogenetic volcanic fields must reflect differences in magma processing during ascent. To assess their evolution we use thermobarometry and geochemistry to evaluate ascent paths for neighboring, nearly coeval volcanic fields in the Snake River Plain, in south-central Idaho, derived from (1) dominantly Holocene polygenetic evolved lavas from the Craters of the Moon lava field (COME) and (2) Quaternary non-evolved, olivine tholeiites (NEOT) from nearby monogenetic volcanic fields. These data show that NEOT have high magmatic temperatures (1205 + or - 27 degrees C) and a narrow temperature range (< 25 degrees C) at any given depth; NEOT parent magmas partially crystallize within the...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Petrology
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We constrain the physical nature of the magma reservoir and the mechanisms of rhyolite generation at Yellowstone caldera via detailed characterization of zircon and sanidine crystals hosted in three rhyolites erupted during the (ca. 170 – 70 ka) Central Plateau Member eruptive episode – the most recent post-caldera magmatism at Yellowstone. We present 238U-230Th crystallization ages and trace-element compositions of the interiors and surfaces (i.e., unpolished rims) of individual zircon crystals from each rhyolite. We compare these zircon data to 238U- 230Th crystallization ages of bulk sanidine separates coupled with chemical and isotopic data from single sanidine crystals. Zircon age and trace-element data demonstrate...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Petrology
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This study reports oxygen isotope ratios determined by laser fluorination of mineral separates (mainly plagioclase) from basaltic andesitic to rhyolitic composition volcanic rocks erupted from the Lassen Volcanic Center (LVC), northern California. Plagioclase separates from nearly all rocks have ??18O values (6.1-8.4%) higher than expected for production of the magmas by partial melting of little evolved basaltic lavas erupted in the arc front and back-arc regions of the southernmost Cascades during the late Cenozoic. Most LVC magmas must therefore contain high 18O crustal material. In this regard, the ??18O values of the volcanic rocks show strong spatial patterns, particularly for young rhyodacitic rocks that...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Petrology
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The Campanian Ignimbrite is a > 200 km3 trachyte-phonolite pyroclastic deposit that erupted at 39.3 ?? 0.1 ka within the Campi Flegrei west of Naples, Italy. Here we test the hypothesis that Campanian Ignimbrite magma was derived by isobaric crystal fractionation of a parental basaltic trachyandesitic melt that reacted and came into local equilibrium with small amounts (5-10 wt%) of crustal rock (skarns and foid-syenites) during crystallization. Comparison of observed crystal and magma compositions with results of phase equilibria assimilation-fractionation simulations (MELTS) is generally very good. Oxygen fugacity was approximately buffered along QFM+1 (where QFM is the quartz-fayalite-magnetite buffer) during...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Petrology
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The Idaho batholith and spatially overlapping Challis intrusive province in the North American Cordillera have a history of magmatism spanning some 55 Myr. New isotopic data from the ???98 Ma to 54 Ma Idaho batholith and ???51 Ma to 43 Ma Challis intrusions, coupled with recent geochronological work, provide insights into the evolution of magmatism in the Idaho segment of the Cordillera. Nd and Hf isotopes show clear shifts towards more evolved compositions through the batholith's history and Pb isotopes define distinct fields correlative with the different age and compositionally defined suites of the batholith, whereas the Sr isotopic compositions of the various suites largely overlap. The subsequent Challis magmatism...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Petrology
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The Quaternary Tatara-San Pedro volcanic complex (36°S, Chilean Andes) comprises eight or more unconformity-bound volcanic sequences, representing variably preserved erosional remnants of volcanic centers generated during 930 ky of activity. The internal eruptive histories of several dominantly mafic to intermediate sequences have been reconstructed, on the basis of correlations of whole-rock major and trace element chemistry of flows between multiple sampled sections, but with critical contributions from photogrammetric, geochronologic, and paleomagnetic data. Many groups of flows representing discrete eruptive events define internal variation trends that reflect extrusion of heterogeneous or rapidly evolving magna...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Petrology
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Zircons from the Devils Kitchen rhyolite in the Pleistocene Coso Volcanic field, California have been analyzed by in situ Pb/U ion microprobe (SHRIMP-RG) and by detailed cathodoluminescence imaging. The zircons yield common-Pb-corrected and disequilibrium-corrected 206Pb/238U ages that predate a previously reported K-Ar sanidine age by up to 200 kyr, and the range of ages exhibited by the zircons is also approximately 200 kyr. Cathodoluminescence imaging indicates that zircons formed in contrasting environments. Most zircons are euhedral, and a majority of the zircons are weakly zoned, but many also have anhedral, embayed cores, with euhedral overgrowths and multiple internal surfaces that are truncated by later...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Petrology
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The Hideaway Park tuff is the only preserved extrusive volcanic unit related to the Red Mountain intrusive complex, which produced the world-class Henderson porphyry Mo deposit. Located within the Colorado Mineral Belt, USA, Henderson is the second largest Climax-type Mo deposit in the world, and is therefore an excellent location to investigate magmatic processes leading to Climax-type Mo mineralization. We combine an extensive dataset of major element, volatile, and trace element abundances in quartz-hosted melt inclusions and pumice matrix glass with major element geochemistry from phenocrysts to reconstruct the pre-eruptive conditions and the source and evolution of metals within the magma. Melt inclusions are...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Petrology
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Models of continental crustal magmagenesis commonly invoke the interaction of mafic mantle-derived magma and continental crust to explain geochemical and petrologic characteristics of crustal volcanic and plutonic rocks. This interaction and the specific mechanisms of crustal contamination associated with it are poorly understood. An excellent opportunity to study the progressive effects of crustal contamination is offered by the composite plutons of the Alaska Range, a series of nine early Tertiary, multiply intruded, compositionally zoned (peridotite to granite) plutons. Large initial Sr and Nd isotopic contrasts between the crustal country rock and likely parental magmas allow evaluation of the mechanisms and...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Petrology
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Rhyolite pumices and co-erupted granophyric (granite) xenoliths yield evidence for rapid magma generation and crystallization prior to their eruption at 15·2 ± 2·9 ka at the Alid volcanic center in the Danikil Depression, Eritrea. Whole-rock U and Th isotopic analyses show 230Th excesses up to 50% in basalts <10 000 years old from the surrounding Oss lava fields. The 15 ka rhyolites also have 30–40% 230Th excesses. Similarity in U–Th disequilibrium, and in Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic values, implies that the rhyolites are mostly differentiated from the local basaltic magma. Given the (230Th/232Th) ratio of the young basalts, and presumably the underlying mantle, the (230Th/232Th) ratio of the rhyolites upon eruption...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Petrology


map background search result map search result map Lower-crustal xenoliths from Jurassic kimberlite diatremes, upper Michigan (USA): Evidence for Proterozoic orogenesis and plume magmatism in the lower crust of the southern Superior Province Lower-crustal xenoliths from Jurassic kimberlite diatremes, upper Michigan (USA): Evidence for Proterozoic orogenesis and plume magmatism in the lower crust of the southern Superior Province