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Twenty-two female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were collected in a house attic in Montgomery County, Maryland. Seventeen were fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) that contained 166 ppm DDE; the other five were fed uncontaminated mealworms. After 54 days of feeding, six dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 16 were starved to death. In a second experiment, 21 female big brown bats were collected in a house attic in Prince Georges County, Maryland. Sixteen were fed mealworms that contained 9.4 ppm Aroclor 1254 (PCB). After 37 days, two bats had died, four dosed bats were frozen, and the remaining 15 were starved to death. Starvation caused mobilization of stored residues. After the feeding periods, average...
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Oxychlordane reached lethal levels in birds given dietary dosages of HCS-3260 (70.75% cis-chlordane and 23.51% trans-chlordane) at 6 levels from 50 to 500 ppm. Oxychlordane ranged from 9.4 to 22.1 ppm in brains of cowbirds (Molothrus ater ) grackles (Quiscalus quiscula , and red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus ) that died on dosage and from 1.3 to 4.8 ppm in sacrificed birds, providing a clear diagnostic separation. Among starlings (Sturnus vulgaris ) however, oxychlordane ranged from 5.0 to 19.1 ppm in brains of birds that died, significantly lower than in the other species, and from 1.4 to 10.5 ppm in sacrificed birds, overlapping the levels in those that died. Lethal levels, therefore, begin near 5.0 ppm,...
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Twoyearold male mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) received a control diet (0.2 ppm Se) or diets containing 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 ppm Se as selenomethionine for 14 wk. Se accumulated readily in the liver in a dosedependent manner, reaching a mean concentration of 29 ppm (wet weight) in the 32 ppm group. Dietary Se of 2 ppm or greater increased plasma glutathione peroxidase activity. Mortality (10%) and histopathological effects, including bile duct hyperplasia and hemosiderin pigmentation of the liver and spleen, occurred in the 32 ppm group. These histopathological effects were accompanied by lower hemoglobin concentrations (16 and 32 ppm groups) and hematocrit (32 ppm group), and elevated plasma alkaline phosphatase...
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Epidemiological criteria were used to examine the influence of environmental contamination on reproductive success of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush,) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Most of the information was obtained from lake trout eggs collected in southeastern Lake Michigan and reared in the laboratory. Two separate end points that measure reproductive success—egg hatchability and fry survival‐were used in the evaluation. Strong evidence for maternally derived polychlorinated biphenyls causing reduced egg hatchability were observed for the time order, strength of association, and coherence criteria. Equally strong evidence for organic environmental contaminants, also of maternal origin, causing a swim‐up...
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Severe gross and microscopic lesions and other changes were found in adult aquatic birds and in embryos from Kesterson Reservoir (a portion of Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge), Merced County, Calif., during 1984. Adult birds from that area were emaciated, had subacute to extensive chronic hepatic lesions, and had excess fluid and fibrin in the peritoneal cavity. Biochemical changes in their livers included elevated glycogen and non-protein-bound sulfhydryl concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activity but lowered protein, total sulfhydryl, and protein-bound sulfhydryl concentrations. Congenital malformations observed grossly in embryos were often multiple and included anophthalmia, microphthalmia, abnormal...
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Adult female little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) were collected in a church attic in North East, Cecil County, Md. Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) containing organochlorine pollutants were fed to the bats as follows: 5 bats were dosed at 480 ppm DDE, 12 at 150 ppm DDE, 5 at 1000 ppm polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB; Aroclor 1260), and 12 at 15 ppm PCB. Seven other bats were fed untreated mealworms. The objective was to elevate brain levels of DDE and PCB to lethality and measure these concentrations. During 40 d of dosage, one DDE-dosed bat and two PCB-dosed bats died after exhibiting the prolonged tremor that characterizes organochlorine poisoning. After dosage, surviving bats were starved to elevate brain levels of...
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Thirty breeding pairs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups and were fed breeder mash containing 0, 12.5, 50.0, 200.0, or 800.0 ppm Ni (as the sulfate) for 90 d. Ni ingestion had no effect on egg production, hatchability, or survival of ducklings. After 90 d birds were bled, sacrificed, and necropsied. There were no significant differences in hematocrit; concentrations of hemoglobin, plasma triglyceride, and cholesterol; of plasma activities of ornithine carbamoyltransferase and alanine aminotransferase. A black tarry feces was noted in the high Ni dose group at necropsy, but no gross or histopathologic lesions were observed. Although absolute concentrations of Ni...
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Adult female free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) were collected at Bracken Cave, Texas, and shipped to the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Treated mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) containing 107 ppm DDE were fed to 17 bats; five other bats were fed untreated mealworms. After 40 days on dosage, during which one dosed bat was killed accidentally, four dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 17 were starved to death. The objective was to elevate brain levels of DDE to lethality and measure these concentrations. After the feeding period, dosed bats weighed less than controls. After starvation, the body condition of dosed bats was poorer than that of controls even though there was no difference in the amounts of...
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Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed a control diet, diets containing 1, 5, 10, or 25 ppm Se as sodium selenite, or a diet containing 10 ppm Se as seleno-DL-methionine in the first of two experiments. Selenium at 10 ppm as selenomethionine or 25 ppm as sodium selenite caused a 40-44% decrease in the total number of eggs that hatched compared to controls. Selenium at 25 ppm (sodium selenite) resulted in a 19% decrease in mean embryonic weight at 18 d of incubation, accompanied by a 6% decrease in crown-rump length. Ten parts per million Se as selenomethionine was more teratogenic than sodium selenite at 25 ppm. Selenomethionine (10 ppm Se) resulted in an incidence of 13.1% malformations that were often multiple,...
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Selenium from selenomethionine accumulated in a dose-dependent manner in the liver, resulting in a decrease in hepatic-reduced glutathione with a corresponding decrease in total hepatic thiols. There was a dose-dependent increase in the oxidized to reduced glutathione ratio, and an increase in lipid peroxidation. These findings indicate that Se in the diet at 10 ppm and higher causes significant sublethal alterations in mallard ducklings, and 20-40 ppm causes significant hepatotoxicity.
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Beginning the day after hatching, American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings were orally dosed for 10 consecutive days with 5 microliters/g of corn oil (controls) or one of the diphenyl ether herbicides (nitrofen, bifenox, or oxyfluorfen) at concentrations of 10, 50, 250, or 500 mg/kg in corn oil. At 500 mg/kg, nitrofen resulted in complete nestling mortality, bifenox in high (66%) mortality, and oxyfluorfen in no mortality. Nitrofen at 250 mg/kg reduced nestling growth as reflected by decreased body weight, crownrump length, and bone lengths including humerus, radiusulna, femur, and tibiotarsus. Bifenox at 250 mg/kg had less effect on growth than nitrofen, but crownrump, humerus, radiusulna, and femur were significantly...
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Reproductive problems, including congenital malformations, reduced hatching success, and decreased survival of hatchlings, have been observed in colonial-nesting water birds at the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge (SFBNWR). Twenty-four black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs were collected from SFBNWR in 1983. Twelve of these were collected from separate nests when late-stage embryos were pipping, and an additional egg was randomly collected from each nest for organochlorine analysis. Overt anomalies and skeletal defects were not apparent. Embryonic weights (with partially absorbed yolk sacs removed) were 15% lower (p lt 0.05) in SFBNWR embryos compared to control embryos from the Patuxent...
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Egg surface applications of microliter quantities of crude and refined oils of high aromatic content are embryotoxic to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and other avian species; applications of aliphatic hydrocarbons have virtually no effect. Mallard eggs at 72 h of development were exposed to a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons or to aromatic compounds representative to those present in crude oil to assess their toxicity. The class composition of the mixture was similar to that of South Louisiana crude oil, an American Petroleum Institute reference oil. Application of 20 microliter of the mixture reduced embryonic survival by nearly 70%. The temporal pattern of embryonic death was similar to that after exposure to...
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Adult cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) were held individually for 96 h in static systems containing initial concentrations of either 0, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 ppm parathion in 10 ml water. Mortality of cricket frogs was directly related to the parathion concentration in the water. Frogs from the 1.0- and 10-ppm groups accumulated 0.08 and 4.6 ppm parathion, respectively. One of four American kestrels (Falco sparverius) fed frogs from the 10-ppm group died from organophosphate poisoning less than 3 h after consuming five frogs. Mortality did not occur in kestrels fed frogs from the other treatment groups, which represented more environmentally realistic levels of exposure.
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Oral doses of the organophosphorus pesticides acephate, dicrotophos, fensulfothion, fonofos, malathion, and parathion were administered to mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos), and brain and plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activities were determined for up to 77 d after dosing. In vivo recovery of brain ChE activity to within 2 standard deviations of the mean activity of undosed birds occurred within 8 d, after being depressed an average of 25-58% at 24 h after dosing. In vivo recovery of plasma ChE appeared as fast as or faster than that of brain, but the pattern of recovery was more erratic and therefore statistical comparison with brain ChE recovery was not attempted. In vitro tests indicated that the potential...
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Residue levels of 12 organochlorine compounds found in the brains of bald eagles can be predicted from the corresponding concentrations in the carcass when expressed on a hexane-extractable lipid basis. The compounds varied by a factor of about 3 in the degree to which they accumulated in the brain. An understanding of these relations enhances our ability to assess the toxic hazards of environmental contamination.
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Paired mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were given No. 4 lead shot, and bone lead concentrations were compared in drakes and in laying and nonlaying hens. Lead accumulation was significantly greater in bones with a high medullary content (femur and sternum) compared with bones with a lower medullary content (ulna-radius or wingbones). In dosed groups, hens always contained higher bone lead residues than drakes. After dosage with one shot (approximately 200 mg lead), lead in femurs of laying hens averaged 488.4 ppm compared with 113.6 ppm in nonlaying hens. Femurs of drakes averaged 9.4 ppm lead. Dosage with the second lead shot did not result in further accumulation of bone lead in hens, but increased bone lead...
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Mallard ducks fed 2, 20, or 200 ppm cadmium chloride were sacrificed at 30, 60, and 90 d. No mortality occured during the study and body weights remained unchanged. Kidney weights of the 200-ppm group were significantly greater after 60 and 90 d than those of controls; also, testis weights were significantly lower after 90 d. Kidneys of ducks fed 2 and 20 ppm cadmium were relatively unaffected; however, slight to severe kidney lesions were found in the 200-ppm group after 60 d of treatment. No significant lesions were found in mallard testes after feeding 2 ppm cadmium in the diet, and only a few birds in the 20-ppm group showed slight to moderate gonad alterations. After 90 d of treatment, however, testes of males...
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Severe gross and microscopic lesions and other changes were found in adult aquatic birds and in embryos from Kesterson Reservoir (a portion of Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge), Merced County, Calif., during 1984. Adult birds from that area were emaciated, had subacute to extensive chronic hepatic lesions, and had excess fluid and fibrin in the peritoneal cavity. Biochemical changes in their livers included elevated glycogen and non-protein-bound sulfhydryl concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activity but lowered protein, total sulfhydryl, and protein-bound sulfhydryl concentrations. Congenital malformations observed grossly in embryos were often multiple and included anophthalmia, microphthalmia, abnormal...