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Upon re-examination of preserved larval chiggers collected from spadefoot toads (Spea bombifrons and Spea multiplicata) in the Southern High Plains of Texas, USA, and identified previously as Hannemania sp., we found them to be Eutrombicula alfreddugesi. A review of previous reports of Eutrombicula spp. chiggers on amphibian hosts provides context for current findings. All members of the genus Hannemania are specialized larval parasites of amphibians, whereas larval E. alfreddugesi are generalist parasites of a wide variety of terrestrial vertebrate hosts that infrequently includes amphibians. Spadefoot toads are previously undocumented hosts for E. alfreddugesi, and observed infestations were unusually prevalent...
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From January 1999 to April 2002, 14 free-ranging elk were darted with a mixture of Telazol® reconstituted with xylazine hydrochloride (HCl) in a forested habitat in southwestern Oklahoma and north-central Arkansas. Elk were darted from ground blinds, tree stands, or a vehicle at distances of 14–46 m and were recovered 37–274 m from the dart site. Elk were located using radiotelemetry with 3-cc disposable Pneu-dart® transmitter darts. Mean±SD dose of Telazol®and xylazine HCl was 590±192 mg/ml and 276±153 mg/ml, respectively, and mean time to standing after injection of reversal agent was 27 min (range: 1–65 min). The combination of Telazol® and xylazine HCl successfully immobilized free-ranging elk, and transmitter-equipped...
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There is an increasing need to develop field immobilization techniques that allow researchers to handle safely swift foxes (Vulpes velox) with minimal risk of stress or injury. We immobilized captive swift foxes to determine the safety and effectiveness of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride at different dosages. We attempted to determine appropriate dosages to immobilize swift foxes for an adequate field-handling period based on three anesthesia intervals (induction period, immobilization period, and recovery period) and physiologic responses (rectal temperature, respiration rate, and heart rate). Between October 1998–July 1999, we conducted four trials, evaluating three different dosage ratios of...
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A plague (Yersinia pestis) epizootic spread through Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni), and possibly other rodent species, in the Moreno Valley in north-central New Mexico between winter 1984-1985 and autumn 1987. We observed the progress of the epizootic and subsequent population recovery at four prairie dog towns within the valley during this period. At two towns (Midlake and Val Verde) the prairie dogs were marked prior to the epizootic. At two additional towns (Vega and South Entrance) prairie dogs were marked following the epizootic. In 1988, a second epizootic occurred at Vega. One hundred thirty-nine serum samples were collected from prairie dogs and other rodents and 1,750 fleas were collected from...
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As a possible strategy to protect whooping cranes (Grus americana) from fatal eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) viral infection, studies were conducted to determine the immune response of this species and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) to a formalin-inactivated EEE viral vaccine. Viral-specific neutralizing antibody was elicited in both species after intramuscular (IM) vaccination. Subcutaneous and intravenous routes of vaccination failed to elicit detectable antibody in sandhill cranes. Among the IM vaccinated cranes, the immune response was characterized by nondetectable or low antibody titers that waned rapidly following primary exposure to the vaccine. However, one or more booster doses consistently elicited...
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Since 1982 when secondary poisoning of a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was documented following the recommended use of famphur applied topically to cattle, the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center has tested dead birds of prey for poisoning by famphur and other pour-on organophosphorus (OP) insecticides. Brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity was first determined, then if ChE was depressed greater than or equal to 50%, stomach and/or crop contents were evaluated for anti-ChE compounds. This report presents the circumstances surrounding the OP-caused deaths of eight bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), two red-tailed hawks, and one great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) between March 1984 and March 1985. OP poisoning...
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Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) were collected during an epizootic in southeastern North Carolina (USA). Activity of brain cholinesterase (ChE) was inhibited by 14 to 48% in three of five specimens, and returned to normal levels after incubation. Gastrointestinal tracts were analyzed for 30 anti-ChE agents. Carbofuran, the only compound detected, was present in all specimens at levels from 5.44 to 72.7 μg/g wet weight. Application of granular carbofuran in an adjacent corn field, results of necropsy examinations, and chemical analyses are consistent with a diagnosis of carbofuran poisoning in these specimens.
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Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are critically endangered, primarily threatened by the overharvesting of eggs, fisheries entanglement, and coastal development. The Pacific leatherback population has experienced a catastrophic decline over the past two decades. Leatherbacks foraging off the coast of California are part of a distinct Western Pacific breeding stock that nests on beaches in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands. Although it has been proposed that the rapid decline of Pacific leatherback turtles is due to increased adult mortality, little is known about the health of this population. Health assessments in leatherbacks have examined females on nesting beaches, which provides...
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West Nile virus (WNV) spread to the US western plains states in 2003, when a significant mortality event attributed to WNV occurred in Greater Sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus ). The role of avian species inhabiting sagebrush in the amplification of WNV in arid and semiarid regions of the North America is unknown. We conducted an experimental WNV challenge study in Vesper Sparrows ( Pooecetes gramineus ), a species common to sagebrush and grassland habitats found throughout much of North America. We found Vesper Sparrows to be moderately susceptible to WNV, developing viremia considered sufficient to transmit WNV to feeding mosquitoes, but the majority of birds were capable of surviving infection and developing...
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Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are maintained in wild waterbirds and have the potential to infect a broad range of species, including wild mammals. The Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska supports a diverse suite of species, including waterfowl that are common hosts of IAVs. Mammals co-occur with geese and other migratory waterbirds during the summer breeding season, providing a plausible mechanism for interclass transmission of IAVs. To estimate IAV seroprevalence and identify the subtypes to which geese, loons, Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus), caribou (Rangifer tarandus), and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are potentially exposed, we used a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) and a hemagglutination inhibition...
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We describe a die-off of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus carissima) associated with acute intoxication with microcystin-LR in 2016 at Scofield Reservoir in Utah. High levels of this cyanotoxin in water from the reservoir and gastrointestinal content of bats supported this diagnosis.
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As part of a study to determine the cause(s) of population decline and low survival of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) neonates on Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge (HMNAR), Oregon (USA), 55 of 104 neonates captured during May 1996 and 1997 were necropsied (n = 28, 1996; n = 27, 1997) to determine cause of death. Necropsies were conducted on fawns that died during May, June, or July of each year. The objectives of this study were to report the occurrence and pathology of pasteurellosis in neonates and determine if the isolated strain of Pasteurella multocida was unique. Septicemic pasteurellosis, caused by P. multocida, was diagnosed as the cause of death for two neonates in May and June 1997. Necropsy findings...
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Prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) antibodies in the western Atlantic subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) is among the highest for any shorebird. To assess whether the frequency of detection of AIV antibodies is high for the species in general or restricted only to C. c. rufa, we sampled the northeastern Pacific Coast subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari) breeding in northwestern Alaska. Antibodies were detected in 90% of adults and none of the chicks sampled. Viral shedding was not detected in adults or chicks. These results suggest a predisposition of Red Knots to AIV infection. High antibody titers to subtypes H3 and H4 were detected, whereas low to intermediate antibody levels...
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An epizootic of infectious keratoconjuctivitis occurred in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in Yellowstone National Park during the winter of 1981-82. The causative organism was identified as Chlamydia sp. Mortality related to the epizootic was approximately 60% of an estimated 500 bighorn sheep in the northern range population. The infection probably affected all sex and age classes, but field surveys of live animals and mortality suggested that mature rams died disproportionately. Limited field observations the following winter on individuals having both normal and cloudy-appearing eyes suggested that half of the bighorns then present on the core units of winter range had contracted the disease and survived. By...


map background search result map search result map Dynamics of plague in a Gunnison's prairie dog colony complex from New Mexico Avian influenza virus antibodies in Pacific Coast Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa) Chlamydial-caused infectious keratoconjunctivitis in bighorn sheep of Yellowstone National Park Dynamics of plague in a Gunnison's prairie dog colony complex from New Mexico Chlamydial-caused infectious keratoconjunctivitis in bighorn sheep of Yellowstone National Park Avian influenza virus antibodies in Pacific Coast Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa)