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Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid,:and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle.necrosis.
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In the eighth volume of Fowler's Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, the editors have returned to the original, comprehensive, taxa-based format last used in the fifth volume that was released in 2003. The book consists of 82 chapters, divided into taxonomic classes that include amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, and a general topics section. The editors deliberately selected new senior authors who are expert veterinary advisors for the various taxa. This international assemblage of authors is impressive, although the book would have benefited from a greater diversity of disciplinary expertise. Synthesis of the large and expanding body of knowledge about zoo and wild animal medicine is a Sisyphean task, but one...
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An unusual form of pulmonary aspergillosis in a red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) is described in this report. The major lesion is unique because it closely resembles a lesion referred to as an aspergilloma. An aspergilloma is a single large granulomatous lesion that resembles a tumor and is caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus.
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The effect of ACTH on plasma corticosterone and cortisol was determined in 12 eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and in 6 Andean condors (Vultur gryphus). In all raptors, the concentration of plasma corticosterone was substantially greater than that of cortisol. After ACTH administration, the eagles had a marked increase (P less than 0.001) in plasma corticosterone concentrations, but not in plasma cortisol. Administration of saline solution did not induce increased plasma corticosterone concentrations in the eagles. The condors had a smaller increase (P less than 0.002) in plasma corticosterone concentrations after ACTH administration, as compared with that of the eagles. However, administration of saline solution...
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Aspergillosis has been described in many species of wild waterfowl, primarily as a disease of the respiratory tract. Typically, mycotic granulomas are found in the lungs. Air sacs may be thickened and contain discoid individual or coalescing greenish or bluish plaques resembling bread mold. Occasionally, there is systemic involvement, with granulomas in multiple organs. Carcasses often are emaciated, indicating a long-term course. In the present report, we describe a fatal acute manifestation of Aspergillus fumigatus infection that easily may be overlooked when examining wild waterfowl.
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1) Twenty-one raccoons and 3 red foxes were collected from areas where suspected rabies occurred. All were found to be nonrabid. 2) Distemper was diagnosed in 14 of the 21 raccoons by demonstrating intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions in the brain and visceral tissues. Two of the 3 foxes were considered to have distemper; the clinical signs were typical and mouse inoculation tests were negative for rabies. 3) Deaths of the other 7 raccoons were attributed to: leishmaniasis 1, gastritis 1, bronchopneumonia 1, parasitism 2, car injury 1; 1 showed no significant lesions. The death of 1 fox was attributed to parasitism. 4) Distemper may be a frequent cause of death in raccoons and foxes, in epizootics which...
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Of 39 captive whooping cranes (Grus americana), 7 died during a 7-week period (Sept 17 through Nov 4, 1984) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Md. Before their deaths, 4 cranes did not develop clinical signs, whereas the other 3 cranes were lethargic and ataxic, with high aspartate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and lactic acid dehydrogenase activities, and high uric acid concentrations. Necropsies indicated that the birds had ascites, intestinal mucosal discoloration, fat depletion, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and visceral gout. Microscopically, extensive necrosis and inflammation were seen in many visceral organs; the CNS was not affected. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus was isolated...
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Three 13- to 18-day-old whooping cranes (Grus americana) and a 9-year-old whooping crane died in outdoor pens at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The deaths were associated with an overwhelming systemic infection by an intracellular protozoan parasite, which resulted in enteritis, granulomatous bronchopneumonia, hepatitis, splenitis, and myocarditis. The clinical, histopathologic, and electron microscopic findings were similar to those in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Patuxent Center found to be infected with Eimeria reichenowi and E gruis. Since these eimerian species also parasitize wild whooping cranes, this parasite might be an important pathogenic agent for this species.
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Four anesthetic agents used in human or veterinary medicine and 3 experimental anesthetic preparations were evaluated for effectiveness in inducing narcosis when administered orally to game-farm mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).Tribromoethanol was the only compound to satisfy criteria of initial tests. Mean duration of the induction, immobilization, and recovery periods was 2.4 minutes, 8.7 minutes, and 1.3 hours, respectively, at the median effective dosage for immobilization (ED50; 100 mg./kg. of body weight). The median lethal dosage (LD50) was 400 mg./kg. of body weight.Tribromoethanol was also tested on mallards during the reproductive season. Effects on the hatchability of eggs or the survival of young were...
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Oral granulomas were observed in 31 (33%) of 95 captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Necropsy of six of the afflicted cranes revealed granulomatous nodules throughout many of their organ systems. Intracellular protozoan organisms morphologically resembling schizogonic stages were observed within the granulomas by light and electron microscopy. Sexual and asexual stages of coccidia were seen in sections of the intestines of 4 of 5 cranes examined microscopically, and Eimerian oocysts were seen in fecal flotation specimens from 3 of 4 birds.
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Four black-footed ferrets that were live-trapped in South Dakota and transported to the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center died within 21 days after vaccination with modified live canine distemper virus. Immunofluorescence, European ferret inoculation, virus isolation attempts, and serum-neutralization tests indicated insufficient attenuation of the vaccine for this species.
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A report was received by Merovka that a large number of wild ducks had been found dead on a small lake located about 15 miles southwest of Dimmitt, Castro County, Texas. The area was visited by Merovka and U.S. Game Agent Boone, who found and picked up 307 dead ducks, nearly all mallards and pintails. The farmer on whose land the birds were found stated that tot he best of his knowledge and belief the birds had all perished on Feb. 27, 1944. Field examination of the birds indicated that they had died at approximately that time. Only 1 sick bird was observed during the field investigation.
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Disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC) caused by Eimeria spp was first recognized as a disease entity in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and whooping cranes (G americana) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Because cranes produced at the Center are reintroduced to the wild to augment wild populations, studies involving both experimentally induced and natural infections were initiated to determine the potential or actual occurrence of DVC in wild Gruidae. Nine sandhill cranes dosed orally with eimerian oocysts of wild origin developed lesions characteristic of DVC. Extraintestinal granulomas associated with developing schizonts were found in 6 birds. Similar lesions were observed in wild sandhill...