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Conclusions:Owls avoided agricultural lands (due to prey availability), used grass-forb areas for foraging, and avoided croplands and grazed pasture. 95% of all movements occurred within 600 meters of the nest burrows.Thresholds/Learnings:At a minimum, a 600m radius should be maintained around burrowing owl nests in order to ensure the survival of burrowing owls
Conclusions:Wetland extent, proximity of wetlands to the sampling station, and the position of a wetland in a watershed (downstream wetlands have greater influence on water quality) influence water quality.Thresholds/Learnings:
Conclusions:Study found statistically significant relationships among source water quality, percent land cover, and drinking water treatment cost. Increased percent agriculture and urban cover were significantly related to decreased water quality, while decreased forest land cover was significantly related to decreased water quality. High percent land cover by non-forest vegetation was significantly related to low treatment cost.Thresholds/Learnings:
Conclusions:Report synthesizes scientific, planning, and policy-related aspects on the importance of land conservation in areas producing water for potable uses, including watersheds and aquifers. One critical finding indicated that if there is more forest cover in a watershed, water treatment costs are lower.Thresholds/Learnings:For every 10% increase in forest cover in the source area, treatment and chemical costs decreased by about 20%, up to about 60% forest cover. Treatment costs level off when forest cover is between 70-100%.
Conclusions:This report sets out guidelines intended to provide BCEAG member jurisdictions with a coordinated approach to recommendations regarding the management of human use activities within wildlife corridors and habitat patches in the Bow Valley of Alberta. The guidelines provide an advisory framework for decision making related to wildlife management as well as recommendations for mitigating the negative effects of human activity on wildlife in the region.Thresholds/Learnings:Male and female cougars avoided areas of high human use and where human use levels exceeded 250-500 users per month.
Conclusions:Landscapes dominated by woody vegetation had significantly more patches, smaller patches and patch core areas, more total edge, and higher patch diversity than landscapes dominated by anthropogenic cover types. Results indicate that expanding juniper is exacerbating the fragmentation process initiated by previous human activityThresholds/Learnings:
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Synopsis: This study evaluates whether previous observations of a higher percentage of parasitism and parasitoid diversity in a complex agricultural landscape, relative to a simple landscape, represent a general phenomenon. Rates of parasitism and parasitoid diversity of the armyworm (Pseudaletia unipuncta) were assessed in three replicate (Onondaga, Ingham, and Benton) regions in southern Michigan. Within each region, a simple landscape (primarily cropland) and a complex landscape (cropland intermixed with mid and late successional noncrop habitats) were identified through analysis of aerial photographs. In each landscape, three maize fields were selected, and second to fourth instar P. unipuncta were released...
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Synopsis: This study analyzed the effects of vegetation change on hydrological fluctuations in the Columbia River basin over the last century using two land cover scenarios. The first scenario was a reconstruction of historical land cover vegetation, c. 1900. The second scenario was more recent land cover as estimated from remote sensing data for 1990. The results show that, hydrologically, the most important vegetation-related change has been a general tendency towards decreased vegetation maturity in the forested areas of the basin. This general trend represents a balance between the effects of logging and fire suppression. In those areas where forest maturity has been reduced as a result of logging, wintertime...
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Synopsis: Using multi-scale seasonal models, this study explored how broad scale landscape context and local resource heterogeneity influenced local resource selection among threatened forest-dwelling woodland caribou in southern Quebec. Caribou consistently avoided roads, however researchers identified thresholds in road proximity effects. The threshold distance at which caribou avoid roads is 1.25 km for active roads and 0.75 km from derelict roads. Open lichen woodlands were an important cover type for caribou during winter and spring, whereas deciduous forests, wetlands, and even young disturbed stands became important during calving and summer. Landscape cover type and amount explained more variation in habitat...
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Conclusions: Report presents a framework for assessing the condition of Southern Alberta’s natural assets and their ability to provide ecosystem goods and services. Measurable indicators of ecosystem services, including broad and fine scale landscape indicators, were also distilled from a literature review. Thresholds/Learnings: Wetland cover should be maintained at >15% for watersheds with high potential for phosphorus loading & eutrophication. Impervious cover should be maintained at or below 25% in heavily urbanizing watersheds. Synopsis: This report develops a framework for assessing the condition of Southern Alberta’s natural assets and their resulting ability to provide ecosystem goods and services. The...
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Synopsis: Wind erosion control is typically needed in areas with low and variable precipitation and frequent droughts, and where high winds, high temperature and consequent high evaporation are common conditions, such as in southern Alberta. Potential average annual erosion rates from wind erosion are predicted using the wind erosion equation E= f(I, K, C, L, V) where I is the soil erodibility index, K is the soil-ridge-roughness factor, C is the climactic factor, L is the unsheltered, weighted travel distance of the wind across a field and V is the equivalent vegetated cover. Wind erosion can be controlled with one or more of the following five basic principles of wind erosion control: · Reduce field widths...
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Conclusions: Grizzly bears can use roaded habitats, but spatial avoidance will increase and survival will decrease as traffic levels, road densities and human settlement increases. Road density standards and road closure programmes should be developed and that these programmes incorporate seasonal habitat requirements of grizzly bears. Thresholds/Learnings: More than 80% of bear sitings occurred in blocks of undisturbed habitat >900 ha Synopsis: The study examined the relationships between grizzly bears, habitat and roads in the Swan Mountains, Montana. The study showed complex spatial and temporal relationships between grizzly bears and habitat resources. Resource selection was expressed relative to strength...
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Conclusions: Caribou subpopulation persistence and landscape occupancy depends highly on the degree of forest cover, cover type, and distance from human presence. Thresholds/Learnings: Synopsis: This study evaluates factors influencing the persistence and landscape occupancy of caribou subpopulations in southern British Columbia. Data from 235 radio-collared caribou across 13 subpopulations were used to derive a landscape occupancy index. The index was analyzed against 33 landscape variables including, land cover, terrain, climate, and human influence. At the metapopulation level, the persistence of subpopulations correlated with the extent of wet climate conditions and the distribution of old forests and alpine...
Conclusions:Wetlands and riparian zones should be strategically placed in watersheds to optimize nitrogen removal, as, for example, in tile-drained farmlands prone to high concentrations of nitrateThresholds/Learnings:Restoring 10 million hectares of riparian zones and wetlands, representing 3.4% of the Mississippi River basin, would reduce nitrogen in the Mississippi River Basin and its tributaries by an average of 40%
Conclusions:Report presents draft outcomes, indicators, and targets for the Red Deer River Basin in three topic areas: wetlands, riparian areas, and land use. Targets established were based on a detailed literature review, combined with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) queries of existing conditions.Thresholds/Learnings:Specific thresholds for the region include: wetland cover should comprise >7.5% of the watershed; peatland cover should comprise > 6.0% in the upper headwaters; 82% of all riparian areas (variable width) in the watershed should have perennial vegetation cover; 97% of all riparian areas (variable width) in the Upper Headwaters should have perennial vegetation cover
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This report is synthesizes and summarizes major findings from literature relating to the direct and indirect ecological impacts of paved highways on birds. It represents a meta-analysis of contributing factors of road mortality, effects of roadway lighting, traffic noise, traffic volume, and roadway contaminants on bird populations, which may help guide conservation efforts within the Yellowstone to Yukon ecoregion. Traffic volume and noise are believed to be the most important factors affecting breeding bird population densities near roads. The number of affected species increases with traffic volume but the relationship appears to reach threshold at an average daily traffic volume of 30,000 vehicles a day. In...
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Synopsis: Recent reports clearly indicate that odor emitted from concentrated livestock production facilities in the Midwest of the US is a significant social problem that negatively impacts rural and state economies, human health, and the quality of rural life. A potential incremental approach to dealing with livestock odor is the use of shelterbelts arranged in strategic designs near and within livestock facilities. This review outlines the various ways that shelterbelts can be effective technology which biophysically mitigates odor thereby reducing social conflict from odor nuisance. The biophysical potential of shelterbelts to mitigate livestock odor arises from the tree/shrub impacts on the central characteristics...
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Synopsis: Remotely sensed data and GIS were used to compare the effects of clear-cutting and road-building on the landscape pattern of the Bighorn National Forest, Wyoming. Landscape patterns were quantified for each of 12 watersheds on a series of four maps that differed only in the degree of clear-cutting and road density. Researchers analyzed several landscape pattern metrics for the landscape as a whole and for the lodgepole pine and spruce/fir cover classes across the four maps to determine the relative effects of clear-cutting and road building on the pattern of each watershed. At both the landscape and cover class scales, clear-cutting and road building resulted in increased fragmentation as represented...
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Synopsis: This report evaluates habitat requirements of the American badger according to parameters of soil texture, graminoid cover, slope, and proximity to roads. Badgers tend to prefer sandy loam and silty loam, medium and moderately coarse textured soils. In terms of graminoid coverage, badgers generally prefer open grassland habitat, but can also be found in agriculturally dominated landscapes containing isolated pockets of Richardson 's ground squirrel colonies. Graminoid coverage of 23% was chosen as the minimum requirement for suitable badger habitat. As slope increases, habitat suitability decreases to a point at which the likelihood of badgers existing there (i.e. cliffs and badlands) is extremely low...
Conclusions:Landscape features affect rates of brood parasitism. Rates of parasitism correlate with proximity to woody vegetation along patch edges. Influx of woody vegetation is associated with roadsides and grazing.Thresholds/Learnings:


map background search result map search result map Effects of paved roads on birds: a literature review and recommendations for the Yellowstone to Yukon Ecoregion Factors influencing the dispersion and fragmentation of endangered mountain caribou populations Ecosystem Goods and Services Southern Alberta Assessment of Natural Asset Condition Effects of land cover change on streamflow in the interior Columbia River Basin (USA and Canada). Assessing the influence of resource co-variates at multiple spatial scales: an application to forest-dwelling caribou faced with intensive human activity. Relationships among grizzly bears, roads, and habitat in the Swan Mountains, Montana. Watershed analysis of forest fragmentation by clearcuts and roads in a Wyoming forest Does agricultural landscape structure affect parasistism and parasitoid diversity? Basic principles of wind erosion control Mitigating swine odor with strategically designed shelterbelt systems: a review. American Badger. Assessing the influence of resource co-variates at multiple spatial scales: an application to forest-dwelling caribou faced with intensive human activity. Relationships among grizzly bears, roads, and habitat in the Swan Mountains, Montana. Does agricultural landscape structure affect parasistism and parasitoid diversity? Watershed analysis of forest fragmentation by clearcuts and roads in a Wyoming forest Factors influencing the dispersion and fragmentation of endangered mountain caribou populations Ecosystem Goods and Services Southern Alberta Assessment of Natural Asset Condition Effects of land cover change on streamflow in the interior Columbia River Basin (USA and Canada). Effects of paved roads on birds: a literature review and recommendations for the Yellowstone to Yukon Ecoregion Basic principles of wind erosion control Mitigating swine odor with strategically designed shelterbelt systems: a review.