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Long-term greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies for the Netherlands were studied, using a MARKAL energy model. The EMS study identifies longterm technological options for greenhouse gas emission reduction and assesses their cost-effectiveness, taking interactions between technologies into account. The project consisted of three parts: carbon dioxyde (CO 2) emission reduction in the energy system, integrated reduction of greenhouse gases from the energy system with consideration of upstream emissions and CO 2 reduction in the integrated energy and materials system. 500 energy technologies were assessed for their reduction potential. Significant emission reduction seems possible, but it takes an array of measures...
The opportunities for long term energy efficiency improvement in industry have been studied. Three studies are described. The first study was directed at making a preliminary survey of technologies that might reduce the end-use demand of industrial processes on the long term. The second study focused on the development of a methodology to make a more profound analysis of the long term potential. The third study describes a database for energy efficient technologies. It is concluded that, after technologies that are currently technically feasible have been implemented, there still exists a considerable (new) potential for improvement.
The main properties of a phytoclimatic model are explained. It is a technique for theoretic simulation but a field work verification is essential. The methodology involves the transformation of a territory's general phytoclimate data into particular phytoclimate estimates. We are dealing with a simple mathematical climate-soil-relief-vegetation model offering the possibility of predicting changes in vegetation liable to occur at any point in the Iberian peninsula's territory, when the climate data values of a site change as compared with data currently estimated. It consequently enables both alterations and sensitivity of potential plant communities to possible climate changes to be detected and predicted at a certain...
This paper presents the links between the climate model IMAGE 2 and the economic model WORLD SCAN, which are set up to obtain an integrated scenario instrument for comprehensive and consistent climate-economy scenarios. The links are made with respect to energy (in WORLD SCAN) and agriculture (in IMAGE 2), thus providing a consistent linkage with feedbacks running both ways.
The contribution of households to CO 2 production is still increasing. To alter patterns of energy consumption for example with respect to commuter traffic, using the freezer, and warming the house, changing life styles related to domestic energy consumption is considered. In our study, we have operationalized life style as means-end chains, that link perceived benefits of a particular behavior to basic values that people pursue. In this paper, preliminary results are presented of the study that is aimed at empirically establishing the feasibility of the concept of life style in relation to domestic energy consumption.