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Globally, rivers are increasingly being subjected to various levels of physical alteration and river regulation to provide humans with services such as hydropower, freshwater, flood control, irrigation and recreation. Although river regulation plays an important role in modern society, there are potential consequences which may negatively affect fish and fish habitat. While much effort has been expended examining the response of fish to fluctuating flow regimes in different systems, there has been little in the way of a comprehensive synthesis. In an effort to better understand the effects of river regulation on fish and fish habitat, we conducted a systematic review of available literature with three goals: (1)...
This database is the result of an extensive literature search aimed at identifying documents relevant to the emerging field of dam removal science. In total the database contains 296 citations that contain empirical monitoring information associated with 207 different dam removals across the United States and abroad. Data includes publications through 2020 and supplemented with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Inventory of Dams database, U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System and aerial photos to estimate locations when coordinates were not provided. Publications were located using the Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Clearinghouse for Dam Removal Information.
Climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions is predicted to raise the mean global temperature by 1.0-3.5�C in the next 50-100 years. The direct and indirect effects of this potential increase in temperature on terrestrial ecosystems and ecosystem processes are likely to be complex and highly varied in time and space. The Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems core project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme has recently launched a Network of Ecosystem Warming Studies, the goals of which are to integrate and foster research on ecosystem-level effects of rising temperature. In this paper, we use meta-analysis to synthesize data on the response of soil respiration, net N mineralization, and aboveground...
Mitigation of ecological damage caused by rangeland wildfires has historically been an issue restricted to the western United States. It has focused on conservation of ecosystem function through reducing soil erosion and spread of invasive plants. Effectiveness of mitigation treatments has been debated recently. We searched for literature on postfire seeding of rangelands worldwide. Literature databases searched included SCOPUS, Dissertation Abstracts, Forest Science, Tree search, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Search terms within publications included fire or wildfire in combination with seeding, rehabilitation, restoration, revegetation, stabilization, chaining, disking, drilling, invasives,...
Climate change is a pervasive and growing global threat to nature’s contributions to people. To inform proactive adaptation actions and research priorities, it is important to periodically synthesize peer-reviewed evidence of observed and projected climate effects on ecosystem services. By systematically reviewing journal articles that were published between 2014 and 2018, we aimed to identify trends and gaps in recent assessments of climate effects on ecosystem service supply, demand, and monetary value. In addition to recording direct climate impacts, we extracted data regarding climate interactions with non-climate drivers, study context (e.g., spatial scale, location, ecosystem) and methodology, characteristics...
***This data product has been SUPERSEDED by Duda, J.J., Johnson, R.C., Wieferich, D.J., Wagner, W.J., and Bellmore, J.R., 2020, USGS Dam Removal Science Database v3.0 (ver. 3.0, January 2020): U.S. Geological Survey data release,​***
Post-fire rehabilitation seeding in the U.S. Intermountain West, primarily conducted by the Bureau of Land Management, is designed to reduce the risk of erosion and weed invasion while increasing desirable plant cover. Seeding effectiveness is typically monitored for three years following treatment, after which a closeout report is prepared. We evaluated 220 third-year closeout reports describing 214 aerial and 113 drill seedings implemented after wildfires from 2001 through 2006. Each treatment was assigned a qualitative success rating of good, fair, poor, or failure based on information in the reports. Seeding success varied by both treatment (aerial or drill) and year. Aerial seedings were rated 13.6% good, 18.3%...
Soil is the largest reservoir of organic carbon (C) in the terrestrial biosphere and soil C has a relatively long mean residence time. Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations generally increase plant growth and C input to soil, suggesting that soil might help mitigate atmospheric CO2 rise and global warming. But to what extent mitigation will occur is unclear. The large size of the soil C pool not only makes it a potential buffer against rising atmospheric CO2, but also makes it difficult to measure changes amid the existing background. Meta-analysis is one tool that can overcome the limited power of single studies. Four recent meta-analyses addressed this issue but reached somewhat different conclusions...

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