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Covington states in his Commentary1 that the open ponderosa pine forests of the western United States are "in widespread collapse" because fire suppression by humans has eliminated the low-intensity surface fire regime that maintained the open, park-like structure of these forests. He fears this will lead to an "unprecedented" crown fire regime that will eliminate forests.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Nature
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There was a plotting error in Fig. 1 that inadvertently displays earthquakes for the incorrect time interval. The location of earthquakes during the two-day-long slow-slip event of January 2005 are shown here in the corrected Fig. 1. Because the incorrect locations were also used in the Coulomb stress-change (CSC) calculation, the error could potentially have biased our interpretation of the depth of the slow-slip event, although in fact it did not. Because nearly all of the earthquakes, both background and triggered, are landward of the slow-slip event and at similar depths (6.5–8.5 km), the impact on the CSC calculations is negligible (Fig. 2; compare with Fig. 4 in original paper). The error does not alter our...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Nature
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No abstract available.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Nature
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Human alterations to nutrient cycles and herbivore communities are affecting global biodiversity dramatically. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Nature
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Soils contain the largest near-surface reservoir of terrestrial carbon and so knowledge of the factors controlling soil carbon storage and turnover is essential for understanding the changing global carbon cycle. The influence of climate on decomposition of soil carbon has been well documented, but there remains considerable uncertainty in the potential response of soil carbon dynamics to the rapid global increase in reactive nitrogen (coming largely from agricultural fertilizers and fossil fuel combustion). Here, using 14C, 13C and compound-specific analyses of soil carbon from long-term nitrogen fertilization plots, we show that nitrogen additions significantly accelerate decomposition of light soil carbon fractions...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation, Journal Citation; Tags: Nature
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AMBIENT water diffuses into the exposed surfaces of obsidian, forming a hydration layer which increases in thickness with time to a maximum depth of 20-40 ??m (ref. 1), this layer being the basic foundation of obsidian dating2,3. ?? 1974 Nature Publishing Group.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Nature
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Helium is used as a critical tracer throughout the Earth sciences, where its relatively simple isotopic systematics is used to trace degassing from the mantle, to date groundwater and to time the rise of continents1. The hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio, commonly cited as evidence for a deep mantle source for the Yellowstone hotspot2. However, much of the helium emitted from this region is actually radiogenic helium-4 produced within the crust by α-decay of uranium and thorium. Here we show, by combining gas emission rates with chemistry and isotopic analyses, that crustal helium-4 emission rates from Yellowstone exceed (by orders of magnitude)...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Nature
Plant species that colonize new environments tend to favour habitats with ample water and nutrients. But invasive plants can be more efficient in their use of resources than that observation might imply. Published in Nature, volume 446, on pages 985 - 986, in 2007.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation, Journal Citation; Tags: Nature
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Titan was once thought to have global oceans of light hydrocarbons on its surface, but after 40 close flybys of Titan by the Cassini spacecraft, it has become clear that no such oceans exist. There are, however, features similar to terrestrial lakes and seas, and widespread evidence for fluvial erosion, presumably driven by precipitation of liquid methane from Titan's dense, nitrogen-dominated atmosphere. Here we report infrared spectroscopic data, obtained by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) on board the Cassini spacecraft, that strongly indicate that ethane, probably in liquid solution with methane, nitrogen and other low-molecular-mass hydrocarbons, is contained within Titan's Ontario Lacus.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Nature
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The history of the Arctic Ocean during the Cenozoic era (0-65 million years ago) is largely unknown from direct evidence. Here we present a Cenozoic palaeoceanographic record constructed from >400 m of sediment core from a recent drilling expedition to the Lomonosov ridge in the Arctic Ocean. Our record shows a palaeoenvironmental transition from a warm 'greenhouse' world, during the late Palaeocene and early Eocene epochs, to a colder 'icehouse' world influenced by sea ice and icebergs from the middle Eocene epoch to the present. For the most recent ???14 Myr, we find sedimentation rates of 1-2 cm per thousand years, in stark contrast to the substantially lower rates proposed in earlier studies; this record of...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Nature
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[No abstract available]
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Nature
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Many mantle peridotite samples are too rich in SiO2 (in the form of orthopyroxene) and have ratios of light to heavy rare earth elements that are too high to be consistent with an origin as the residuum of partial melting of the primitive mantle. Trace element studies of melt/rock reaction zones in the Trinity peridotite provide evidence for reaction of the mantle lithosphere with ascending melts, which dissolved calcium-pyroxene and precipitated orthopyroxene as magma mass decreased. This process can account for the observed major and trace element compositions of lithospheric mantle samples, and may accordingly be prevalent in the upper mantle.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Nature
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THEORIES that explain the extinctions characterizing the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary1-3 need to be tested by analyses of thoroughly sampled biotas. Palynological studies are the primary means for stratigraphic placement of the terrestrial boundary and for estimates of plant extinction4-12, but have not been combined with quantitative analyses of fossil leaves (megaflora). Megafloral studies complement palynology by representing local floras with assemblages capable of high taxonomic resolution13, but have previously lacked the sample size and stratigraphic spacing needed to resolve latest Cretaceous floral history5,14-18. We have now combined megafloral data from a 100-m-thick composite K/T boundary section...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Nature
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Massive ore-grade zinc, copper and iron sulphide deposits have been found at the axis of the East Pacific Rise. Although their presence on the deep ocean-floor had been predicted there was no supporting observational evidence. The East Pacific Rise deposits represent a modern analogue of Cyprus-type sulphide ores associated with ophiolitic rocks on land. They contain at least 29% zinc metal and 6% metallic copper. Their discovery will provide a new focus for deep-sea exploration, leading to new assessments of the concentration of metals in the upper layers of the oceanic crust. ?? 1979 Nature Publishing Group.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Nature
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NORDSTRANDITE (Al2O3??3H2O), previously reported only as a synthetic product1,2, occurs in Miocene limestone on Guam. In south Guam this limestone forms a cap several hundred feet thick, on the Mount Alifan-Mount Lamlan ridge, and overlies late Eocene and early Miocene basalt flows and volcanic conglomerates. The volcanic rocks below the limestone are deeply weathered. The nordstrandite occurs in secondary solution cavities and is concentrated mainly in the basal part of the limestone near its contact with the weathered basalt. In thin section the nordstrandite crystals are seen as flamboyant aggregates reaching lengths of as much as 0.4 mm. The optical properties of the mineral are as follows: ?? = 1.580 ?? 0.004...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Nature


map background search result map search result map Variable effects of nitrogen additions on the stability and turnover of soil carbon Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation Variable effects of nitrogen additions on the stability and turnover of soil carbon Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation