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In this study we describe the design and application of an automated classification system that utilizes artificial intelligence to corroborate the finding that Gunnison's prairie dogs have different alarm calls for different species of predators. This corroboration is strong because it utilizes an entirely different analysis technique than that used in the original research by Slobodchikoff et al. [Slobodchikoff, C.N., Fischer, C., Shapiro, J., 1986. Predator-specific alarm calls of prairie dogs. Am. Zool. 26, 557] or in subsequent study done by Slobodchikoff et al. [Slobodchikoff, C.N., Kiriazis, J., Fischer, C., Creef, E., 1991. Semantic information distinguishing individual predators in the alarm calls of Gunnison's...
The cascade correlation neural network was used to predict the two-year peak discharge (Q2) for major regional river basins of the continental United States (US). Watersheds ranged in size by four orders of magnitude. Results of the neural network predictions ranged from correlations of 0.73 for 104 test data in the Souris-Red Rainy river basin to 0.95 for 141 test data in California. These results are improvements over previous multilinear regressions involving more variables that showed correlations ranging from 0.26 to 0.94. Results are presented for neural networks trained and tested on drainage area, average annual precipitation, and mean basin elevation. A neural network trained on regional scale data in the...