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Ground water is the primary source of water for domestic, public-supply, and industrial use within the Tri-County region that includes Clinton, Eaton, and Ingham Counties in Michigan. Because of the importance of this ground-water resource, numerous communities, including the city of Mason in Ingham County, have begun local Wellhead Protection Programs. In these programs, communities protect their groundwater resource by identifying the areas that contribute water to production wells and potential sources of contamination, and by developing methods to manage and minimize threats to the water supply. In addition, some communities in Michigan are concerned about water availability, particularly in areas experiencing...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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The Liberty Island Conservation Bank (LICB) is a tidal freshwater marsh restored for the purpose of mitigating adverse effects on sensitive fish populations elsewhere in the region. The LICB was completed in 2012 and is in the northern Cache Slough region of the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta. The wetland vegetation at the LICB is stunted and yellow-green in color (chlorotic) compared to nearby wetlands. A study was done to investigate three potential causes of the stunted and chlorotic vegetation: (1) improper grading of the marsh plain, (2) pesticide contamination from agricultural and urban inputs upstream from the site, (3) nitrogen-deficient soil, or some combination of these. Water samples were collected from...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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Time-series electromagnetic-induction log (TSEMIL) datasets are collected from polyvinyl-chloride cased or uncased monitoring wells to evaluate changes in water conductivity over time. TSEMIL datasets consist of a series of individual electromagnetic-induction logs, generally collected at a frequency of once per month or once per year that have been compiled into a dataset by eliminating small uniform offsets in bulk conductivity between logs probably caused by minor variations in calibration. These offsets are removed by selecting a depth at which no changes are apparent from year to year, and by adjusting individual logs to the median of all logs at the selected depth. Generally, the selected depths are within...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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Fayette County is in central West Virginia. Rocks exposed at the surface are about 3,200 feet thick and comprise the Pocahontas, New River, Kanawha, and Allegheny Formations of Pennsylvanian age. The stratigraphic relations and distribution of coal in these formations were studied by the U.S. Geological Survey in connection with a low-sulfur coal program of the U.S. Bureau of Mines.The coal in Fayette County is medium-volatile and high-volatile A and B bituminous ranks. Of 51 coal beds in the county, 22 are 28 inches to as much as 9 feet thick and contain substantial reserves. Several coals have been mined locally in the past by underground, stripping, and auger methods. Of the 22 coals discussed, 17 contain less...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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Mountain Creek Lake is a reservoir adjacent to two U.S. Department of the Navy facilities, the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant and the Naval Air Station in Dallas, Texas. A Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation found ground-water plumes containing chlorinated solvents on both facilities. These findings led to a U.S. Geological Survey study of Mountain Creek Lake adjacent to both facilities between June 1994 and August 1996. Bottom sediments, lake water, bottom-sediment pore water, and fish were collected for chemical analysis.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure MTHOTH00120067 on Town Highway 12 crossing Freeman Brook, Mount Holly, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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In land-use planning for the Applegate River and its flood plain, consideration should be given to (1) preservation of the recreational attributes of the area, (2) allowance for optimum development of the flood plain's natural resources, and (3) protection of the rights of private landowners. Major factors that influence evaluation of the above considerations are the elevations and characteristics of floods. Heretofore, such flood data for the Applegate River have been inadequate to evaluate the flood potential or to use as a basis for delineating reasonable land-use zones. Therefore, at the request of Jackson County, this study was made to provide flood elevations, water-surface profiles, and channel characteristics...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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We reexamine the geometry of the causative fault structure of the 1989 moment-magnitude-6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake in central California, using seismic-reflection, earthquake-hypocenter, and magnetic data. Our study is prompted by recent interpretations of a two-part dip of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) accompanied by a flower-like structure in the Coachella Valley, in southern California. Initially, the prevailing interpretation of fault geometry in the vicinity of the Loma Prieta earthquake was that the mainshock did not rupture the SAF, but rather a secondary fault within the SAF system, because network locations of aftershocks defined neither a vertical plane nor a fault plane that projected to the surface trace...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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In June 1972, tropical storm Agnes cause severe flooding in Pennsylvania and southern New York. The floods on many major strams were the highest known since the river valleys were settled. Maximum discharges were as much as twice the discharge of a 50-year flood. In central pennsylvania, large areas in Lock Have, Mill Hall, Wilkes-Barre, Kingston, Pittston, harrisburg, and in many smaller communities were inundated to depths of several feet. The extent of the flooding shown on the map was delineated by the U.S. Geological Survey from field surveys made soon after the flood. The investigation was conducted in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources, the Susquehanna River Basin Commission,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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The production and accessibility of geospatial information including Earth observation is changing greatly both technically and in terms of human participation. Advances in technology have changed the way that geospatial data are produced and accessed, resulting in more efficient processes and greater accessibility than ever before. Improved technology has also created opportunities for increased participation in the gathering and interpretation of data through crowdsourcing and citizen science efforts. Increased accessibility has resulted in greater participation in the use of data as prices for Government-produced data have fallen and barriers to access have been reduced. The increase in participation in the production...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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Topock Marsh is a large wetland adjacent to the Colorado River and the main feature of Havasu National Wildlife Refuge (Havasu NWR) in southern Arizona. In 2010, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and Bureau of Reclamation began a project to improve water management capabilities at Topock Marsh and protect habitats and species. Initial construction required a drawdown, which caused below-average inflows and water depths in 2010–11. U.S. Geological Survey Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) scientists collected an assemblage of biotic, abiotic, and hydrologic data from Topock Marsh during the drawdown and immediately after, thus obtaining valuable information needed by FWS.Building upon that work, FORT developed...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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The Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS) analyzes Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) data—digitized laser-return waveforms, position, and attitude data—to derive point clouds of target surfaces. A full-waveform airborne lidar system, the EAARL seamlessly and simultaneously collects mixed environment data, including submerged, sub-aerial bare earth, and vegetation-covered topographies.ALPS uses three waveform target-detection algorithms to determine target positions within a given waveform: centroid analysis, leading edge detection, and bottom detection using water-column backscatter modeling. The centroid analysis algorithm detects opaque hard surfaces. The leading edge algorithm detects topography...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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Evidence indicates that competition with newly established barred owls (Strix varia) is causing rapid declines in populations of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina), and that the longterm persistence of spotted owls may be in question without additional management intervention. A pilot study in California showed that lethal removal of barred owls in combination with habitat conservation may be able to slow or even reverse population declines of spotted owls at local scales, but it remains unknown whether similar results can be obtained in larger areas with different forest conditions and where barred owls are more abundant. In 2015, we implemented a before-after-controlimpact (BACI) experimental design...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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The Illinois River is a primary tributary of the Mississippi River, connecting with the Mississippi at Grafton, Illinois. The headwaters of the river are at the confluence of the Des Plaines and Kankakee Rivers in eastern Grundy County, Illinois. Approximately 273 miles long, it runs through the heart of Illinois and is the connection between the Mississippi River and Lake Michigan in the Great Lakes basin. Because of this connection, there is concern about the potential for introduced aquatic species in one basin to migrate through this connection into the other basin. A prime example of this are the Asian carps, which were introduced into commercial fishing ponds in Arkansas in the 1970s and, following escape,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) researches Earth science to help address complex issues affecting society and the environment. In 2006, the USGS held the first Scientific Information Management Workshop to bring together staff from across the organization to discuss the data and information management issues affecting the integration and delivery of Earth science research and investigate the use of “communities of practice” as mechanisms to share expertise about these issues. Out of this effort emerged the Council for Data Integration, which was conceived as an official organizational function that would help guide data integration activities and formalize communities of practice into working groups; however,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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An estimated one-dimensional layered model of electrical resistivity beneath Florida was developed from published geological and geophysical information. The resistivity of each layer is represented by plausible upper and lower bounds as well as a geometric mean resistivity. Corresponding impedance transfer functions, Schmucker-Weidelt transfer functions, apparent resistivity, and phase responses are calculated for inducing geomagnetic frequencies ranging from 10−5 to 100 hertz. The resulting one-dimensional model and response functions can be used to make general estimates of time-varying electric fields associated with geomagnetic storms such as might represent induction hazards for electric-power grid operation....
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In the Pacific Northwest, coastal wetlands support a wealth of ecosystem services including habitat provision for wildlife and fisheries and flood protection. The tidal marshes, mudflats, and shallow bays of coastal estuaries link marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats, and provide economic and recreational benefits to local communities. Climate change effects such as sea-level rise are altering these habitats, but we know little about how these areas will change over the next 50–100 years. Our study examined the effects of sea-level rise on nine tidal marshes in Washington and Oregon between 2012 and 2015, with the goal of providing scientific data to support future coastal planning and conservation. We compiled...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report


map background search result map search result map Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Somerset and Westmoreland Counties, Pennsylvania,2004--2010 Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Somerset and Westmoreland Counties, Pennsylvania,2004--2010