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Normal alkanes (n-C13n-C36), isoprenoid hydrocarbons (i-C15, i-C16, i-C18, i-C19, and i-C20) triterpanes (C27C32), and (C27C29) are present in low concentrations offshore Antarctica in near-surface, Quaternary sediment of the Wilkes Land continental margin and of the western Ross Sea. The distributions of these hydrocarbons are interpreted relative to possible sources and processes. The hydrocarbons appear to be mixtures of primary and recycled material from marine and terrigenous sources. The n-alkanes are most abundant and are characterized by two distinct populations, one of probable marine origin and the other likely from terrigenous, vascular plant sources. Because the continent of Antarctica today is devoid...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Organic Geochemistry
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Impsonite (asphaltic pyrobitumen) occurs as fracture-filling veins cutting massive sandstone in the frontal Ouachita Mountains near Page, Oklahoma. The Page impsonite formed from low-temperature alteration of crude oil. Mean maximum bitumen reflectance in oil immersion (Rmax) of seven samples is 1.41-1.96%. Mean apparent bireflectance of these samples is 0.15-0.54%. The Page deposit classifies at the upper end of epi-impsonite in the generic classification for solid bitumen, based on physical, chemical, and optical characteristics, and as post-oil with unlimited migration in the genetic classification for solid bitumen. ?? 1991.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Organic Geochemistry
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An immature sulfur-rich marl from the Gessosso-solfifera Formation of the Vena del Gesso Basin (Messinian, Italy) has been subjected to hydrous pyrolysis (160 to 330??C) to simulate maturation under natural conditions. The kerogen of the unheated and heated samples was isolated and the hydrocarbons released by selective chemical degradation (Li/EtNH2 and HI/LiAIH4) were analysed to allow a study of the fate of sulfur- and oxygen-bound species with increasing temperature. The residues from the chemical treatments were also subjected to pyrolysis-GC to follow structural changes in the kerogens. In general, with increasing hydrous pyrolysis temperature, the amounts of sulfide- and ether-bound components in the kerogen...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Organic Geochemistry
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Optical and chemical studies of maceral concentrates from a Miocene lignite and an Eocene high-volatile bituminous C coal from southeastern Kalimantan, Indonesia were undertaken using pyro-Lysis, optical, electron microprobe and FTIR techniques Pyrolysis products of vitrinite from bituminous coal were dominated by straight-chain aliphatics and phenols. The huminite of the Miocene lignite produced mostly phenolic compounds upon pyrolysis. Differences in the pyrolysis products between the huminite and vitrinite samples reflect both maturation related and paleobotanical differences. An undefined aliphatic source and/or bacterial biomass were the likely contributors of n-alkyl moieties to the vitrinite. The resinite...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Organic Geochemistry
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Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (both 1H and 13C) of humic acids from diverse depositional environments indicate the presence of aromatic chemical structures, most likely derived from lignin of vascular plants, and complex, paraffinic structures, most likely derived from algal or microbial sources. The latter components account for a major fraction of humic acid structures in both terrestrial and aquatic environments, suggesting that algae or microbes play a large role in humification of organic remains from both systems. ?? 1981.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Organic Geochemistry
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During Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Leg 84 a core 1 m long and 6 cm in diameter of massive gas hydrate was unexpectedly recovered at Site 570 in upper slope sediment of the Middle America Trench offshore of Guatemala. This core contained only 5-7% sediment, the remainder being the solid hydrate composed of gas and water. Samples of the gas hydrate were decomposed under controlled conditions in a closed container maintained at 4??C. Gas pressure increased and asymptotically approached the equilibrium decomposition pressure for an ideal methane hydrate, CH4.5-3/4H2O, of 3930 kPa and approached to this pressure after each time gas was released, until the gas hydrate was completely decomposed. The gas evolved during...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Organic Geochemistry
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Maceral fractions of the Type II-S kerogens from the Monterey Formation (Miocene. California. U.S.A.) and Duwi Formation (Campanian/Maastrichtian, Egypt) were separated by density gradient centrifugation. The Monterey Fm. kerogen sample was comprised chiefly of light red-fluorescing amorphous organic matter (AOM), the flash pyrolyzate of which was characterized by a predominance of alkylbenzenes, alkylthiophenes and alkylpyrroles. In contrast, the pyrolyzates of its alginite concentrate showed a highly aliphatic character, typical of this maceral, with the series of n-alkenes and n-alkanes (C6- C26) predominating. The pyrolyzate of the dominant light brown-fluorescing AOM of the Duwi Fm. kerogen had a relatively...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Organic Geochemistry
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Dispersed kerogen of the Woodford-Chattanooga and Atoka Formations from the subsurface of the Arkoma Basin show a wide range of thermal maturities (0.38 to 6.1% R(o)) indicating thermal conditions ranging from diagenesis to incipient rock metamorphism. Raman spectral analysis reveals systematic changes of both the first- and second-order spectrum with increasing thermal maturity. These changes include a pronounced increase in the D/O peak height ratio accompanied by a narrowing of the D peak, a gradual decrease in the D/O peak width ratio, and a shift of both peaks toward higher wave numbers. Second-order Raman peaks, though less intensive, also show systematic peak shifting as a function of R(o). These empirical...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Organic Geochemistry
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Various wood fragments buried in sediments under anaerobic conditions for from 450 yr to approximately 8 Myr have been examined by solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. Cellulose and other carbohydrates, the major components of Holocene wood, have been shown to be gradually hydrolyzed or otherwise lost under the conditions of burial. Lignin structures, however, are preserved relatively unchanged and become concentrated by difference as the carbohydrates disappear. Thus, a fragment of coalified wood isolated from a Miocene brown coal was found to be still composed of approximately 75% lignin and 25% cellulose. On the basis of our observations, we suggest that coalification of woody tissue progresses directly...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Organic Geochemistry
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Benzene extractable aliphatic hydrocarbons from the New Albany Shale in the Illinois Basin were characterized by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and the total organic matter of the shale was characterized by solid state carbon-13 cross polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance. Core samples from a northwest-trending cross-section of the Illinois Basin were studied. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis (GC/MS) data indicate a regional variation of the aliphatic composition of the shale extracts. A positive, linear relationship between the two ratios, pristane/n-C17 and phytane/n-C18, is indicated. The NMR results indicated that organic matter deposited...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Organic Geochemistry
Thirty-five different samples from three different sulfur cycles were examined in this stratigraphically oriented study of the Shell 22x-1 well (U.S.G.S. C177 core) in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Carbon isotopic compositions of constituents of Green River bitumens indicate mixing of three main components: products of primary photoautotrophs and their immediate consumers (? ?30? vs PDB), products of methanotrophic bacteria (? ?85?), and products of unknown bacteria (? ?40?). For individual compounds synthesized by primary producers, ?-values ranged from ?28 to ?32?. 13C contents of individual primary products (?-carotene, steranes, acyclic isoprenoids, tricyclic triterpenoids) were not closely correlated, suggesting...
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The changes in the structure of XAD-8 isolated dissolved organic matter (DOM) samples along a river (Penobscot River) to estuary (Penobscot Bay) to ocean (across the Gulf of Maine) transect and from the Pacific Ocean were investigated using selective and two dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy coupled with elemental and carbon isotope analysis. The results provide important insights into the nature of relatively stable structures in the river-to-ocean continuum and the enigma of the fate of terrestrial DOM in the marine system. First, lignin and carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAMs), which are indistinguishable from mass spectrometry, were clearly differentiated with NMR spectroscopy....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Organic Geochemistry
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This manuscript highlights numerous incremental improvements in dissolved lignin measurements over the nearly three decades since CuO oxidation of lignin phenols was first adapted for environmental samples. Intercomparison of the recovery efficiency of three common lignin phenol concentration and isolation techniques, namely XAD, C18with both CH3OH (C18M) and CH3CN (C18A) used independently for priming and elution steps, and tangential flow filtration (TFF) for a range of aquatic samples including fresh, estuarine and marine waters, was undertaken. With freshwater samples XAD8-1, C18M and TFF were all observed to recover ca. 80–90% of the lignin phenols and showed no fractionation effects with respect to diagnostic...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Organic Geochemistry
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When organic geochemistry actually began as a recognized geoscience is a matter of definition and perspective. Constraints on its beginning are placed by the historical development of its parent disciplines, geology and organic chemistry. These disciplines originated independently and developed in parallel, starting in the latter half of the 18th century and flourishing thereafter into the 21st century. Organic geochemistry began sometime between 1860 and 1983; I argue that 1930 is the best year to mark its origin.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Organic Geochemistry
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These data are part of a preliminary report based on the 22-day, two-phase, 2004 Bristol Bay-Alaska Peninsula field program. The program's first phase focused on source rock potential of the Mesozoic section, and the second phase focused on reservoir potential and stratigraphic architecture of Tertiary rocks. Data included here are rock sample details, field sample locations, total organic carbon measurements, and porosity and permeability analysis results.
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Converting non-producible crude oil to CH4 via methanogenic crude oil biodegradation in oil reservoirs could serve as one way to increase our energy profile. Yet, field data supporting the direct relationship between methanogenesis and crude oil biodegradation are sparse. Indicators of methanogenesis, based on the formation water and gas geochemistry (e.g. alkalinity, δ13C–CO2) were compared with indicators of crude oil biodegradation (e.g. pristane/phytane and n-alkane ratios) from wells in the Wilcox Group of Louisiana to determine if increases in extent of methanogenesis were related to increases in extent of crude oil biodegradation. Shallow wells (393–442 m depth) contained highly biodegraded oils associated...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Organic Geochemistry
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FTIR absorbance signals in kerogens and macerals were evaluated as indices for thermal maturity. Two sets of naturally matured type-II kerogens from the New Albany Shale (Illinois Basin) and the Exshaw Formation (Western Canada Sedimentary Basin) and kerogens from hydrous pyrolysis artificial maturation of the New Albany Shale were characterized by FTIR. Good correlation was observed between the aromatic/aliphatic absorption ratio and vitrinite reflectance R 0. FTIR parameters are especially valuable for determining the degree of maturity of marine source rocks lacking vitrinite. With increasing maturity, FTIR spectra express four trends: (i) an increase in the absorption of aromatic bands, (ii) a decrease in the...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Organic Geochemistry
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Aquatic humic substances, which account for 30 to 50% of the organic carbon in water, are a principal component of aquatic organic matter. The molecular size of aquatic humic substances, determined by small-angle X-ray scattering, varies from 4.7 to 33 A?? in their radius of gyration, corresponding to a molecular weight range of 500 to greater than 10,000. The aquatic fulvic acid fraction contains substances with molecular weights ranging from 500 to 2000 and is monodisperse, whereas the aquatic humic acid fraction contains substances with molecular weights ranging from 1000 to greater than 10,000 and is generally polydisperse. ?? 1982.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Organic Geochemistry
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In coal samples, published recommendations based on statistical methods suggest 100 measurements are needed to estimate the mean random vitrinite reflectance (Rv-r) to within ??2%. Our survey of published thermal maturation studies indicates that those using dispersed organic matter (DOM) mostly have an objective of acquiring 50 reflectance measurements. This smaller objective size in DOM versus that for coal samples poses a statistical contradiction because the standard deviations of DOM reflectance distributions are typically larger indicating a greater sample size is needed to accurately estimate Rv-r in DOM. However, in studies of thermal maturation using DOM, even 50 measurements can be an unrealistic requirement...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Organic Geochemistry


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