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The USGS Astrogeology Science Center is a national resource for the integration of planetary geoscience, cartography, and remote sensing. As explorers and surveyors, with a unique heritage of proven expertise and international leadership, we enable the ongoing successful investigation of the Solar System for humankind.
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From 2008 to 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District, developed an acoustic backscatter surrogate (model 1.0) for estimating real-time suspended-sediment concentration and loads at Clearwater River at Spalding, ID (USGS ID: 13342500) using a horizontally-mounted 3000kHz acoustic Doppler velocity meter (ADVM). This study is a continuation of the 2008 to 2012 acoustic backscatter surrogate study using samples collected since 2015 to validate the continued use of model 1.0. Sample data collected in 2015 to 2018 show a deviation from model 1.0 when backscatter data from the ADVM, after correction for acoustic losses, is greater than 65.7 decibels....
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Almost all the pictures acquired by Mariner 10 that were used for mapping were obtained during the first encounter: those covering the southeast half of the quadrangle are incoming close-encounter images, and those covering the north-west corner are outoing close-encounter images. At the time the pictures were obtained, the terminator was at about long 7° to 8°, within the eastern part of the quadrangle. A large gap in coverage between in the incoming and outgoing images appears as a northeast-trending diagonal blank strip on the base map. A small part of this gap was filled in the southwestern part of the quadrangle by very poor second-encounter images.
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Appendices include the original survey, response data, and collated results related to the Open File Report. Geoscience maps, regardless of target body, are spatial and temporal representations of materials and processes recorded on planetary surfaces (Varnes, 1973; Spencer, 2000). The information and context provided by these maps promote basic and applied research within and across various geoscience disciplines. They also provide an important basis for programmatic and policy decisions (for example, H.R. 2763 – 102nd Congress, National Geologic Mapping Act of 1992). Since 1961, planetary (that is, all solid surface bodies in the Solar System beyond Earth) geoscience maps have been used in nearly every facet of...
The Chesapeake Bay impact structure was formed by a meteorite crashing to Earth during the late Eocene, about 35.5 million years ago (Ma). In May 2006, a scientific drilling project, sponsored by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), completed a deep coring program into the impact structure. The deep drilling produced one of the most complete geologic sections ever obtained in an impact structure, and studies of the core samples will allow scientists to understand a shallow-marine impact event and its consequences at an unprecedented level.This buried structure is the seventh largest, and one of the best preserved, of the known impact structures on...
A point layer of sites known to be useful analogs for planetary science, such as impact craters, dunes, volcanoes, and other processes observed on bodies across the solar system.
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As part of a NASA-funded study of sediment flux rates at a Mars analog site, we installed a suite of instruments in a small dune field near Grand Falls, Arizona. Data released in this report were collected from 10/28/2013 to 11/04/2016. The Grand Falls (GF) dune field is located on the Navajo Nation. It lies ~70 km NE of Flagstaff, AZ, 2 km east of Grand Falls, and just north of the Little Colorado River (LCR). The dune field consists of barchans, smaller dunes, ripples, and bare, indurated interdune surfaces; all features commonly found on the Martian surface. We measured sediment flux using a Sensit saltation sensor and a set of three Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE) passive sediment samplers, at 20, 50, and 100...
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Basic information about the planetary surface of the Kuiper quadrangle is provided by three sequences of high-quality photographs designated Mercury I, II, and II, obtained during the incoming phases of three encounters of the Mariner 10 spacecraft with Mercury. Mercury I includes 75 whole-frame photographs of the Kuiper quadrangle; Mercury II, 13 whole-frame photographs; and Mercury III, 70 quarter-frame photographs. The photographs include 19 stereopairs in the southern part of the quadrangle. The most distant of the photographs was taken at an altitude of 89,879 km, the closest at an altitude of 7,546 km. Resolution, therefore, varies widely but ranges from about 1.5 to 2.0 km over most of the area.
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These data are high-resolution bathymetry (riverbed elevation) and depth-averaged velocities in ASCII format, generated from hydrographic and velocimetric surveys near highway bridge structures over the Missouri River in Kansas City, Missouri, in August 2019, as well as special surveys at two of the sites in August and October 2020 before and after installation of scour countermeasures. Hydrographic data were collected using a high-resolution multibeam echosounder mapping system (MBMS), which consists of a multibeam echosounder (MBES) and an inertial navigation system (INS) mounted on a marine survey vessel. Data were collected as the vessel traversed the river along planned survey lines distributed throughout...
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Mariner 10 photographic coverage was available for only the eastern two-thirds of the Tolstoj quadrangle. Image data from three Mariner 10 encounters with Mercury were used in mapping the quadrangle.
The Chesapeake Bay impact structure was formed by a meteorite crashing to Earth during the late Eocene, about 35.5 million years ago (Ma). In May 2006, a scientific drilling project, sponsored by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), completed a deep coring program into the impact structure. The deep drilling produced one of the most complete geologic sections ever obtained in an impact structure, and studies of the core samples will allow scientists to understand a shallow-marine impact event and its consequences at an unprecedented level.This buried structure is the seventh largest, and one of the best preserved, of the known impact structures on...
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This map sheet is one of a series covering that part of the surface of Mercury that was illuminated during the Mariner 10 encounters. Planimetric control is provided by photogrammetric triangulation using Mariner 10 pictures (Davies and Batson, 1975). Discrepancies between images in the base mosaic and computed control-point positions appear to be less than 5 km. No attempt was made to resolve discrepancies in feature positions on this sheet and those on the Kuiper (H-6) quadrangle to the north and the Bach (H-15) quadrangle to the south. The latter sheets were controlled by an earlier, more preliminary net.
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The Beethoven quadrangle is located in the equatorial region of Mercury, in the center of the imaged area. Most pictures of the quadrangle were obtained at high sun angles as the Mariner 10 spacecraft receded from the planet. Images in the northeastern part of the quadrangle are very poor to unusable. Another difficulty in mapping is the poor match in topographic bases between Beethvoen and adjacent quadrangles. Mismatches are especially common along the borders withthe Kuiper and Discovery quadrangles to the east and southeast.
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These data represents laboratory reflectance and emissivity spectral measurements of dune sand samples collected from a variety of dune types and mineralogical compositions from eight dune field locations in Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada and New Mexico (labeled and designated as samples DS-1 through DS-8). Each sample was sieved into various size classes and measured both prior to and after sieving. Visible through Near Infrared through Shortwave Infrared (~0.4 - 2.5 microns) reflectance were measured using an artificial light source attached to an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) spectrometer. Hemispherical reflectance measurements spanning Mid-IR wavelengths, including the Thermal Infrared...
Although ice in the Martian mid-latitudes is typically covered by a layer of dust or regolith, it is exposed in some locations by fresh impact craters or in erosional scarps. In both cases, the exposed ice is massive or excess ice with a low lithic content. We find that erosional scarps occur between 50–61 north and south latitude, and that they are concentrated in and near Milankovič crater in the northern hemisphere and southeast of the Hellas basin in the southern hemisphere. These may represent locations of particularly thick or clean bodies of ice. Pits created by retreat of the scarps represent sublimation-thermokarst landforms that evolve in a manner distinct from other ice-loss landforms on Mars. New impact...
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Most images used in mapping the geology of the Shakespeare quadrangle were taken during the near-equatorial first pass, with close encounter on teh dark side of the planet. The second, south-polar pass did not image the Shakespeare quadrangle at high resolution. High-resolution images of small areas within the quadrangle were also obtained during the third pass, when the spacecraft was on the near-encounter north-polar trajectory. Because the spacecraft viewed the same areas from different positions during the first and second passes, stereoscopic pictures are available for certain areas of the southern hemisphere; however, such pictures are not available for the Shakespeare quadrangle. This map includes a strip...
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As part of a NASA-funded study of sediment flux rates at a Mars analog site, we installed a suite of instruments in a small dune field near Grand Falls, Arizona. Data released in this report was collected from 02/07/2017 to 05/22/2019. The Grand Falls (GF) dune field is located on the Navajo Nation. It lies ~70 km NE of Flagstaff, AZ, 2 km east of Grand Falls, and just north of the Little Colorado River (LCR). The dune field consists of barchans, smaller dunes/ripples, and bare interdunes with indurated surfaces, all features commonly found on the Martian surface. We measured sediment flux using a Multi Layer Solid State Saltation Sensor (MLS4) and a set of three Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE) passive sediment samplers,...
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The USGS Publications Warehouse is a citation clearinghouse provides access to over 120,000 publications written by USGS scientists over the century-plus history of the bureau. Since June 2003, all USGS series publications published after that date are available digitally through the USGS web. Since 2009, all scholarly publications authored by USGS staff including those published outside the USGS (scholarly journals, university presses, etc.) are cataloged with links to original published sources. The USGS Publications Warehouse is managed and operated as part of the USGS Libraries Program. ScienceBase harvests all records nightly from the Publications Warehouse via a web service interface that provides original...
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Most of the photographs used for geologic mapping were acquired by the departing spacecraft during the first pass (Mercury I). The Mercury II encounter provided no usable images of the map area; two low-oblique photographs suitable for geologic mapping were acquired during the third flyby on March 17, 1975 (Davies and others, 1978, p. 31). No stereoscopic phtographic pairs are available for the Borealis region.
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These geotiffs represent the raster GIS outputs of Linear Deconvolution (Linear Spectral Unmixing) analysis of ASTER image pixels covering various sand dune and sand sheet fields throughout the Western United States and Alaska. The accompanying sets of zip files contain linear deconvolution-derived mineral fractional abundance maps for various 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-component mixture models of various dune-forming minerals, as well as RMS and residual errors for each model. Each geotiff layer has an associated metadata file with further details on each dune field and linearly deconvolved mineral distribution.


map background search result map search result map Visible, Near Infrared, Shortwave Infrared and Thermal Infrared Laboratory Spectra of Samples of Compositionally Variable Dune Fields in the Western United States and Alaska Linear Deconvolution Mineral Maps of Compositionally Variable Dune Fields in the Western United States and Alaska Geologic Map fo the Beethoven Quadrangle of Mercury Geologic Map of the Discovery Quadrangle of Mercury Geologic Map of the Kuiper Quadrangle of Mercury Geologic Map of the Victoria Quadrangle of Mercury Model Archive Summary for Suspended Sediment,  Acoustic Sediment Surrogate Model 2.0, USGS gage number 13342500, Clearwater River at Spalding, Idaho Grand Falls, Arizona: Dune Field Sand Transport 2013 - 2016 Grand Falls, Arizona: Dune Field Sand Transport 2017 - 2019 Known Terrestrial Analog Sites for Planetary Science Bathymetry and Velocity Data from Surveys at Highway Bridges crossing the Missouri River in Kansas City, Missouri, in August 2019, August 2020, and October 2020 Grand Falls, Arizona: Dune Field Sand Transport 2013 - 2016 Grand Falls, Arizona: Dune Field Sand Transport 2017 - 2019 Model Archive Summary for Suspended Sediment,  Acoustic Sediment Surrogate Model 2.0, USGS gage number 13342500, Clearwater River at Spalding, Idaho Bathymetry and Velocity Data from Surveys at Highway Bridges crossing the Missouri River in Kansas City, Missouri, in August 2019, August 2020, and October 2020 Visible, Near Infrared, Shortwave Infrared and Thermal Infrared Laboratory Spectra of Samples of Compositionally Variable Dune Fields in the Western United States and Alaska Linear Deconvolution Mineral Maps of Compositionally Variable Dune Fields in the Western United States and Alaska Geologic Map of the Kuiper Quadrangle of Mercury Geologic Map of the Discovery Quadrangle of Mercury Geologic Map of the Victoria Quadrangle of Mercury Geologic Map fo the Beethoven Quadrangle of Mercury Known Terrestrial Analog Sites for Planetary Science