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This assessment was conducted to fulfill the requirements of section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 and to improve understanding of factors influencing carbon balance in ecosystems of Hawai‘i. Ecosystem carbon storage, carbon fluxes, and carbon balance were examined for major terrestrial ecosystems on the seven main Hawaiian islands in two time periods: baseline (from 2007 through 2012) and future (projections from 2012 through 2061). The assessment incorporated observed data, remote sensing, statistical methods, and simulation models. The national assessment has been completed for the conterminous United States, using methodology described in SIR 2010-5233, with results provided in three...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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The San Francisco district was of recognized importance in the early days of mining in Utah, but its output soon declined and thereafter it attracted little attention until about 1903, when the development of the Cactus mine was undertaken. In August, 1904, S. F. Emmons, then in charge of the division of metalliferous deposits of the Geological Survey, visited the district and determined the area to be covered by a projected topographic map. In 1904 and 1905 Fred McLaughlin completed a topographic map covering the San Francisco and Preuss districts and parts of the Beaver Lake, Rocky, and Star districts, an area of about 175 square miles. In the spring of 1908 Waldemar Lindgren, in charge of the division of metalliferous...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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The occurrence and movement of water in the regional aquifer system that underlies the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho, de- pend on the transmissivity and storage capacity of rocks that compose the geologic framework and on the distribution and amount of recharge and discharge of water within that frame- work. On a regional scale, most water moves horizontally through interflow zones in Quaternary basalt of the Snake River Group. In recharge and discharge areas, water also moves vertically along joints and interfingering edges of basalt flows. Aquifer thickness is largely unknown, but geophysical studies suggest that locally the Quaternary basalt may exceed several thousand feet. Along the margins of the plain,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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Coal and associated waste rock are among environmental selenium (Se) sources that have the potential to affect reproduction in fish and aquatic birds. Ecosystems of southern West Virginia that are affected by drainage from mountaintop coal mines and valleys filled with waste rock in the Coal, Gauley, and Lower Guyandotte watersheds were assessed during 2010 and 2011. Sampling data from earlier studies in these watersheds (for example, Upper Mud River Reservoir) and other mining-affected watersheds also are included to assess additional hydrologic settings and food webs for comparison. Basin schematics give a comprehensive view of sampled species and Se concentration data specific to location and date. Food-web diagrams...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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The hydrogeologic framework for the Floridan aquifer system has been revised throughout its extent in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina. The updated framework generally conforms to the original framework established by the U.S. Geological Survey in the 1980s, except for adjustments made to the internal boundaries of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers and the individual higher and contrasting lower permeability zones within these aquifers. The system behaves as one aquifer over much of its extent; although subdivided vertically into two aquifer units, the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers. In the previous framework, discontinuous numbered middle confining units (MCUI–VII) were used to subdivide...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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A broad-perspective analysis of the ground-water resources and present and possible future water development and management in the Souris-Red-Rainy Region is presented. The region includes the basins of the Souris River within Montana and North Dakota; the Red River of the North in South Dakota, North Dakota, and Minnesota; and the Rainy River within Minnesota. The region includes 59,645 square miles, mostly in North Dakota and Minnesota. The terrain is relatively flat, but ranges in altitude from 2,541 to 750 feet. Annual average precipitation ranges from 14 inches in the west to 28 inches in the east and about 75 percent of it is rain. The mean annual snowfall ranges from 32 inches in the west to 64 inches in...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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The Gila River Forest Reserve was established by proclamation of President McKinley on March 2, 1899. The following is a statement of the boundaries as laid down in the proclamation: "Beginning at a point on the boundary line between New Mexico and Arizona, where it is intersected by the north line of township five (5) south, range twenty-one (21) west, New Mexico principle meridian, New Mexico; thence easterly along the township line to the northeast corner of township five (5) south, range sixteen (16) west; thence southerly along the range line between ranges fifteen (15) and sixteen (16) west, to the southeast corner of township eight (8) south, range sixteen (16) west; thence easterly along the township line...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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Geography and distinctive characters. The fluorspar, lead, and zinc deposits that were the subject of the investigations reported in this paper are situated hi Livings ton, Crittenden, and Caldwell, and adjacent portions of Christian, Trigg, and Lyon counties, in western Kentucky, and in the counties immediately across the Ohio River, in the extreme southern portion of Illinois. This area, constituting what may be aptly termed the Kentucky-Illinois fluorite district, contains also lead, zinc, and other minerals in subordinate quantities and values. It is usually considered a minor division of the lead and zinc districts of the Mississippi Valley, but is in some ways rather sharply distinguished from the other districts...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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Precipitation in the 270,000-square-mile South Atlantic-Gulf Region ranges from 44 to 80 inches, and the average runoff is about 15 inches. The ground-water discharge that forms the base flow of streams is conservatively estimated to be about 78,000 million gallons per day the equivalent of about 6 inches of precipitation. On this basis, the regional sustained ground-water supply is about 286,000 gallons per day per square mile. Projected water use through 2020 indicates that about 10 percent of the supply will meet the region's requirement for ground water. Enormous quantities of ground water are available in the South Atlantic-Gulf States in the extensive aquifers that underlie the Coastal Plain province. Large...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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Stream water was collected at 30 sites within the Tangle Lakes area of the Delta mineral belt in Alaska. Sampling focused on streams near the ultramafic rocks of the Fish Lake intrusive complex south of Eureka Creek and the Tangle Complex area east of Fourteen Mile Lake, as well as on those within the deformed metasedimentary, metavolcanic, and intrusive rocks of the Specimen Creek drainage and drainages east of Eureka Glacier. Major, minor, and trace elements were analyzed in aqueous samples for this reconnaissance aqueous geochemistry effort. The lithologic differences within the study area are reflected in the major-ion chemistry of the water. The dominant major cation in streams draining mafic and ultramafic...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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The eruption of Mount St. Helens from 2004 to 2006 has comprised extrusion of solid lava spines whose growth patterns were shaped by a large space south of the 1980-86 dome that was occupied by the unique combination of glacial ice, concealed subglacial slopes, the crater walls, and relics of previous spines. The eruption beginning September 2004 can be divided (as of April 2006) into five phases: (1) predome deformation and phreatic activity, (2) initial extrusion of spines, (3) recumbent spine growth and repeated breakup, (4) southward extrusion across previous dome debris, and (5) normal faulting of the phase 4 dome to form a depression, a shift to westward extrusion and overthrusting of earlier phase 5 products....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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The rapid onset of energetic seismicity on September 23, 2004, at Mount St. Helens caused seismologists at the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network and the Cascades Volcano Observatory to quickly improve and develop techniques that summarized and displayed seismic parameters for use by scientists and the general public. Such techniques included webicorders (Web-based helicorder-like displays), graphs showing RSAM (real-time seismic amplitude measurements), RMS (root-mean-square) plots, spectrograms, location maps, automated seismic-event detectors, focal mechanism solutions, automated approximations of earthquake magnitudes, RSAM-based alarms, and time-depth plots for seismic events. Many of these visual-information...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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With the unfolding of geologic knowledge during the last century the processes of denudation, transportation of sediments, and sedimentation have become better understood, and to some extent their relative effects in bringing about the present configuration of the earth's surface have been determined. The nature of these processes has been studied in many parts of the globe, but owing to the large size of the units affected and the slowness of the processes there has been little opportunity to collect quantitative data. Indeed, the data available are very largely conjectural, their degree of accuracy being only that of good guessing. However, with the advent of accurate topographic and hydrographic surveys, the...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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The earthquake of June 27, 1925, in Montana caused considerable damage within an area of 600 square miles or more, the center of which is in latitude 46° 5' N. and longitude 111° 20' W., a short distance southeast of Lombard. It was a seismic disturbance of the first order of magnitude, but, owing to the hour at which it occurred and to other fortunate circumstances, no lives were lost and no fires broke out. The shock was startling throughout an area extending 75 miles or more in all directions from the epicenter and was sensible to persons within an area of 310,000 square miles. Within the epicentral area brick buildings suffered severely, rocks fell from cliffs, cracks opened in the ground, and the inhabitants...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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The area to which this report relates is shown in Pl. II. It comprises the greater portions of South Dakota, Nebraska, and Kansas, and the eastern portions of Colorado and of Wyoming, an area of about one-half million square miles. It is the result of my investigations during the past eight years, but includes also all available data from many sources. I have been aided by various field assistants, those deserving special mention being Messrs. C. A. Fisher, C. C. O'Harra, J.E. Todd, the late C. M. Hall, G. B. Eichardson, W. S. Tangier Smith, E. H. Barbour, and the late J. E. Macfarland.On account of its size, the region presents relatively diverse geologic conditions, but comprises comparatively few formations,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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Complete penetration of the Otuk Formation in a continuous drill core (diamond-drill hole, DDH 927) from the Red Dog District illuminates the facies, age, depositional environment, source rock potential, and isotope stratigraphy of this unit in northwestern Alaska. The section, in the Wolverine Creek plate of the Endicott Mountains Allochthon (EMA), is ~82 meters (m) thick and appears structurally uncomplicated. Bedding dips are generally low and thicknesses recorded are close to true thicknesses. Preliminary synthesis of sedimentologic, paleontologic, and isotopic data suggests that the Otuk succession in DDH 927 is a largely complete, albeit condensed, marine Triassic section in conformable contact with marine...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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The Alaska earthquake of March 27, 1964, had widespread hydrologic effects throughout practically all of the United States. More than 1,450 water-level recorders, scattered throughout all the 50 States except Connecticut, Delaware, and Rhode Island, registered the earthquake. Half of the water-level records were obtained from ground-water observation wells and half at surface-water gaging stations. The earthquake is also known to have registered on water-level recorders on wells in Canada, England, Denmark, Belgium, Egypt, Israel, Libya, Philippine Islands, South-West Africa, South Africa, and Northern Territory of Australia. The Alaska earthquake is the first for which widespread surface-water effects are known....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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Self-contained, single-frequency GPS instruments fitted on lightweight stations suitable for helicopter-sling payloads became a critical part of volcano monitoring during the September 2004 unrest and subsequent eruption of Mount St. Helens. Known as “spiders” because of their spindly frames, the stations were slung into the crater 29 times from September 2004 to December 2005 when conditions at the volcano were too dangerous for crews to install conventional equipment. Data were transmitted in near-real time to the Cascades Volcano Observatory in Vancouver, Washington. Each fully equipped unit cost about $2,500 in materials and, if not destroyed by natural events, was retrieved and redeployed as needed. The GPS...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper


map background search result map search result map Erosion and sedimentation in Chesapeake Bay around the mouth of Choptank River Hydrologic effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, outside Alaska, with sections on Hydroseismograms from the Nunn-Bush Shoe Co. well, Wisconsin, and Alaska earthquake effects on ground water in Iowa: Chapter C in <i>The Alaska earthquakes, March 27, 1964: effects on hydrologic regimen</i> The Montana earthquake of June 27, 1925 Hydrology and digital simulation of the regional aquifer system, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho Growth of the 2004-2006 lava-dome complex at Mount St. Helens, Washington: Chapter 9 in <i>A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006</i> Near-real-time information products for Mount St. Helens -- tracking the ongoing eruption: Chapter 3 in <i>A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006</i> Instrumentation in remote and dangerous settings; examples using data from GPS “spider” deployments during the 2004-2005 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington: Chapter 16 in <i>A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006</i> Lithofacies, age, depositional setting, and geochemistry of the Otuk Formation in the Red Dog District, northwestern Alaska Effect of ultramafic intrusions and associated mineralized rocks on the aqueous geochemistry of the Tangle Lakes Area, Alaska: Chapter C in <i>Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, 2011</i> Selenium in ecosystems within the mountaintop coal mining and valley-fill region of southern West Virginia-assessment and ecosystem-scale modeling Growth of the 2004-2006 lava-dome complex at Mount St. Helens, Washington: Chapter 9 in <i>A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006</i> Near-real-time information products for Mount St. Helens -- tracking the ongoing eruption: Chapter 3 in <i>A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006</i> Instrumentation in remote and dangerous settings; examples using data from GPS “spider” deployments during the 2004-2005 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington: Chapter 16 in <i>A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006</i> Effect of ultramafic intrusions and associated mineralized rocks on the aqueous geochemistry of the Tangle Lakes Area, Alaska: Chapter C in <i>Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, 2011</i> Selenium in ecosystems within the mountaintop coal mining and valley-fill region of southern West Virginia-assessment and ecosystem-scale modeling Hydrology and digital simulation of the regional aquifer system, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho Lithofacies, age, depositional setting, and geochemistry of the Otuk Formation in the Red Dog District, northwestern Alaska The Montana earthquake of June 27, 1925 Hydrologic effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, outside Alaska, with sections on Hydroseismograms from the Nunn-Bush Shoe Co. well, Wisconsin, and Alaska earthquake effects on ground water in Iowa: Chapter C in <i>The Alaska earthquakes, March 27, 1964: effects on hydrologic regimen</i>