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Catastrophic floods caused by record rainfall occurred in central Texas during August 1-4, 1978. Torrential rain initiated by the remnants of tropical storm Amelia fell over south-central Texas during August 1-3, and very intense rain due to the interaction between the cold front and maritime air mass fell over north-central Texas on August 3-4. Rainfall of more than 48 inches near Medina in south-central Texas established a new United States record of extreme point rainfall for a 72-hour period. Major flooding occurred on the Medina and Guadalupe Rivers. Severe to minor flooding occurred on the Brazos, Llano, Pedernales, and Nueces Rivers. Floods with recurrence intervals in excess of 100 years and recordsetting...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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This collection of 37 short papers is the second published chapter of "Geological Survey Research 1972." The papers report on scientific and economic results of current work by members of the Conservation, Geologic, and Water Resources Divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey.Chapter A, to be published later in the year, will present a summary of significant results of work done ~n fiscal year 1972, together with lists of investigations in progress, cooperating agencies, and Geological Survey offices."Geological Survey Research 1972" is the thirteenth volume of the annual series Geological Survey Research. The twelve volumes already published are listed below, with their series designations.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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The Boulder River watershed is one of many watersheds in the western United States where historical mining has left a legacy of acid mine drainage and elevated concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements. Abandoned mine lands commonly are located on or affect Federal land. Cleaning up these Federal lands will require substantial investment of resources. As part of a cooperative effort with Federal land-management agencies, the U.S. Geological Survey implemented an Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative in 1997. The goal of the initiative was to use the watershed approach to develop a strategy for gathering and communicating the scientific information needed to formulate effective and cost-efficient remediation of...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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Six regions in the Basin and Range province, ranging in size from 21,600 to 80,000 square kilometers, were evaluated to identify prospective hydrogeologic environments for isolation of high-level radioactive waste. Prospective hydrogeologic environments were evaluated on the basis of the surface distribution of potential host rocks, late Cenozoic tectonic activity, hydrogeologic characteristics, and mineral and energy resources. These regions were selected as prospective for this study from a screening of the Basin and Range province. The six regions have certain characteristics that appear favorable for isolation of radioactive waste. The scant precipitation and great potential for water loss by evaporation and...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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Stream water was collected at 30 sites within the Tangle Lakes area of the Delta mineral belt in Alaska. Sampling focused on streams near the ultramafic rocks of the Fish Lake intrusive complex south of Eureka Creek and the Tangle Complex area east of Fourteen Mile Lake, as well as on those within the deformed metasedimentary, metavolcanic, and intrusive rocks of the Specimen Creek drainage and drainages east of Eureka Glacier. Major, minor, and trace elements were analyzed in aqueous samples for this reconnaissance aqueous geochemistry effort. The lithologic differences within the study area are reflected in the major-ion chemistry of the water. The dominant major cation in streams draining mafic and ultramafic...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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Precipitation in the 270,000-square-mile South Atlantic-Gulf Region ranges from 44 to 80 inches, and the average runoff is about 15 inches. The ground-water discharge that forms the base flow of streams is conservatively estimated to be about 78,000 million gallons per day the equivalent of about 6 inches of precipitation. On this basis, the regional sustained ground-water supply is about 286,000 gallons per day per square mile. Projected water use through 2020 indicates that about 10 percent of the supply will meet the region's requirement for ground water. Enormous quantities of ground water are available in the South Atlantic-Gulf States in the extensive aquifers that underlie the Coastal Plain province. Large...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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This assessment was conducted to fulfill the requirements of section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 and to improve understanding of factors influencing carbon balance in ecosystems of Hawai‘i. Ecosystem carbon storage, carbon fluxes, and carbon balance were examined for major terrestrial ecosystems on the seven main Hawaiian islands in two time periods: baseline (from 2007 through 2012) and future (projections from 2012 through 2061). The assessment incorporated observed data, remote sensing, statistical methods, and simulation models. The national assessment has been completed for the conterminous United States, using methodology described in SIR 2010-5233, with results provided in three...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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Humid tropical regions occupy about a quarter of Earth's land surface, yet they contribute a substantially higher fraction of the water, solutes, and sediment discharged to the world's oceans. Nearly half of Earth's population lives in the tropics, and development stresses can potentially harm soil resources, water quality, and water supply and in addition increase landslide and flood hazards. Owing to Puerto Rico's steep topography, low water storage capacity, and dependence on trade-wind precipitation, the island's people, ecosystems, and water supply are vulnerable to extreme weather such as hurricanes, floods, and droughts. Eastern Puerto Rico offers a natural laboratory for separating geologic and land-cover...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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The baking and reddening of large masses of strata caused by the burning of coal beds is a striking feature of the landscape in most of the great western coal-bearing areas. The general character and broader effects of the burning have been described by many writers, but the fact that in places enough heat is generated to fuse and thoroughly recrystallize the overlying shale and sandstone has received less attention. Some of the natural slags thus formed simulate somewhat abnormal igneous rocks, but others consist largely of rare and little known minerals. A wide range in the mineral composition of such slags is to be expected, depending on the composition of the original sediment and the conditions of fusion and...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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A large region in northeastern Montana has never been thoroughly explored by geologists, owing to the fact that it is a part of the Great Plains and the belief that it is too monotonous and uninteresting to tempt anyone to turn aside from the pronounced geologic features a little farther west, for which Montana is noted. This region includes parts of Sheridan, Valley, Phillips, and Blaine counties. Its investigation was begun by Smith in 1908, when he made a geologic survey of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation. Beekly explored a strip of land along the Montana-North Dakota line from Missouri River to the international boundary, and Bauer examined the townships in which Plentywood and Scobey are situated. Their results...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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The Alaska earthquake of March 27, 1964, caused widespread geomorphic changes in the Martin-Bering Rivers area-900 square miles of uninhabited mountains, alluvial flatlands, and marshes north of the Gulf of Alaska, and east of the Copper River. This area is at lat 60°30’ N. and long 144°22’ W., 32 miles east of Cordova, and approximately 130 miles east-southeast of the epicenter of the earthquake. The geomorphic effects observed were: (1) earthquake-induced ground fractures, (2) mudvent deposits, (3) “earthquake-fountain” craters, (4) subsidence, (5) mudcones, (6) avalanches, (7) subaqueous landslides, (8) turbidity changes in ice-basined lakes on the Martin River glacier, (9) filling of ice-walled sinkholes, (10)...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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The San Francisco district was of recognized importance in the early days of mining in Utah, but its output soon declined and thereafter it attracted little attention until about 1903, when the development of the Cactus mine was undertaken. In August, 1904, S. F. Emmons, then in charge of the division of metalliferous deposits of the Geological Survey, visited the district and determined the area to be covered by a projected topographic map. In 1904 and 1905 Fred McLaughlin completed a topographic map covering the San Francisco and Preuss districts and parts of the Beaver Lake, Rocky, and Star districts, an area of about 175 square miles. In the spring of 1908 Waldemar Lindgren, in charge of the division of metalliferous...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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The hydrogeologic framework for the Floridan aquifer system has been revised throughout its extent in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina. The updated framework generally conforms to the original framework established by the U.S. Geological Survey in the 1980s, except for adjustments made to the internal boundaries of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers and the individual higher and contrasting lower permeability zones within these aquifers. The system behaves as one aquifer over much of its extent; although subdivided vertically into two aquifer units, the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers. In the previous framework, discontinuous numbered middle confining units (MCUI–VII) were used to subdivide...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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Ground-water quality with respect to nitrate, major inorganic constituents, pesticides, stable isotopes, and tritium was assessed in the agricultural Tangshan region in the Hai He River basin of the People's Republic of China and compared with three similar regions in the United States: the Delmarva Peninsula of the States of Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia, and the San Joaquin and Sacramento Valleys of the State of California. These four regions are considered similar with respect to size, land use, or climate. Median nitrate concentrations were found to be similar in the four regions in most instances, and those median concentrations were below the American nitrate drinking water standard of 10 milligrams per...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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This chapter describes data used in support of the assessment process. Digital tabular data used in this report and archival data that permit the user to perform further analyses are available elsewhere on this CD–ROM. Computers and software may import the data without transcription from the portable document format (.pdf) files of the text by the reader. Because of the number and variety of platforms and software available, graphical images are provided as .pdf files and tabular data are provided in a raw form as tab-delimited text files (.tab files).
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper
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Complete penetration of the Otuk Formation in a continuous drill core (diamond-drill hole, DDH 927) from the Red Dog District illuminates the facies, age, depositional environment, source rock potential, and isotope stratigraphy of this unit in northwestern Alaska. The section, in the Wolverine Creek plate of the Endicott Mountains Allochthon (EMA), is ~82 meters (m) thick and appears structurally uncomplicated. Bedding dips are generally low and thicknesses recorded are close to true thicknesses. Preliminary synthesis of sedimentologic, paleontologic, and isotopic data suggests that the Otuk succession in DDH 927 is a largely complete, albeit condensed, marine Triassic section in conformable contact with marine...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Professional Paper


map background search result map search result map Geology of northeastern Montana Geomorphic effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, in the Martin-Bering Rivers area, Alaska: Chapter B in <i>The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects</i> Tabular data and graphical images in support of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment -- San Joaquin Basin (5010): Chapter 28 in <i>Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California</i> Lithofacies, age, depositional setting, and geochemistry of the Otuk Formation in the Red Dog District, northwestern Alaska Effect of ultramafic intrusions and associated mineralized rocks on the aqueous geochemistry of the Tangle Lakes Area, Alaska: Chapter C in <i>Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, 2011</i> Effect of ultramafic intrusions and associated mineralized rocks on the aqueous geochemistry of the Tangle Lakes Area, Alaska: Chapter C in <i>Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, 2011</i> Geomorphic effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, in the Martin-Bering Rivers area, Alaska: Chapter B in <i>The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects</i> Tabular data and graphical images in support of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment -- San Joaquin Basin (5010): Chapter 28 in <i>Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California</i> Lithofacies, age, depositional setting, and geochemistry of the Otuk Formation in the Red Dog District, northwestern Alaska Geology of northeastern Montana