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We tested the efficacy of a vertically oriented field of pulsed direct current (VEPDC) created by an array of vertical electrodes for guiding downstream-moving juvenile Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus to a bypass channel in an artificial flume at water velocities of 10–50 cm/s. Sea Lampreys were more likely to be captured in the bypass channel than in other sections of the flume regardless of electric field status (on or off) or water velocity. Additionally, Sea Lampreys were more likely to be captured in the bypass channel when the VEPDC was active; however, an interaction between the effects of VEPDC and water velocity was observed, as the likelihood of capture decreased with increases in water velocity. The distribution...
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Electromyogram (EMG) radiotelemetry was used to estimate the swim speeds of spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha migrating upstream past a Columbia River dam. Electrodes from EMG transmitters were surgically implanted in the red muscle of fish captured at Bonneville Dam, and output from the tags was calibrated to defined swim speeds for each fish in a tunnel respirometer. The fish were then released below Bonneville Dam and radio-tracked as they migrated through the tailraces, fishways, and forebays of the dam. On average, swim speed was significantly higher when tagged salmon were moving through tailraces than when they were moving through other parts of the dam. Specifically, swim speeds for fish in...
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When lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were subjected to a single attack by a sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus in laboratory tests in 1986, percentage mortality was significantly higher in small fish (64%; 469-557 mm; N = 67) than in medium (44%; 559-643 mm; N = 45) or large fish (43%; 660-799 mm; N = 47). Additional studies conducted in 1987 with 55 medium (559-650 mm) and 52 large (660-825 mm) lake trout confirmed that there was no difference in mortality between the two larger size-groups. Mortality declined in lake trout over 559 mm, but was still greater than 43%. This level of mortality and the sea lampreys' apparently active selection of larger fish indicated that, contrary to previously published opinions, large...
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A largemouth black bass fingerling preserved in formalin was sent to the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries Pathology Laboratory at Seattle, Washington, during the autumn of 1937, by a hatchery employee at Miles City, Montana. The fish exhibited several wart-like protuberances on the caudal peduncle, which aroused the curiosity of Mr. H. C. Topel, in charge of fish distribution at Miles City. He had observed the gradually increasing numbers of these lesions on the fish at this station for several years previous to 1937. Mr. Topel estimated that in 1937, 20 per cent of the adult bass were infected at the time of distribution, and lesions were noted on the fingerling and yearling stock as well.
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Understanding how the external condition of juvenile salmonids is associated with internal measures of health and subsequent out-migration survival can be valuable for population monitoring programs. This study investigated the use of a rapid, nonlethal, external examination to assess the condition of run-of-the-river juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss migrating from the Snake River to the Pacific Ocean. We compared the external condition (e.g., body injuries, descaling, external signs of disease, fin damage, and ectoparasite infestations) with (1) the internal condition of a steelhead as measured by the presence of selected pathogens detected by histopathology and polymerase chain reaction analysis and (2)...
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We estimated mean depths of capture for offshore demersal fish species, grouped into three habitat-based guilds (shallow benthic, pelagic, and deep benthic), using fall bottom trawl data (27–73 m) in the western main basin of Lake Huron from 1976 to 2007. The mean depth of capture of the shallow and deep benthic guilds initially exhibited a trend toward capture in shallower water, switched to a trend toward capture in deeper water in 1991, and changed back to a trend toward capture in shallower water in 2001–2002. Species in the pelagic guild showed a similar pattern, but the initial change point occurred in 1981 for this guild. Individual species in these guilds showed variable patterns of depth distribution, but...
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The toxicity of an acid mixing zone produced at the confluence of a stream that was contaminated by acid mine drainage (AMD) and a pH-neutral stream was investigated in toxicity tests with juvenile bluegill Lepomis macrochirus and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. Fish mortalities in instream cages located in the mixing zone, below the mixing zone, and upstream in both tributaries were compared to determine relative toxicity at each site. In all tests and for both species, significantly higher mortality was observed in the mixing zone than at any other location, including the acid stream, which had lower pH (2.9-4.3). The mixing zone was defined chemically by rapid precipitation of dissolved aluminum and iron,...
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Many fishes occur across broad ranges of latitude and elevation, where winter temperatures can vary from mild to harsh. We conducted a laboratory experiment with three sizes of age-0 steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss to examine growth, condition, and energy reserves under low rations at three levels of water temperature typical of this species' distribution during winter. At the end of the 111-d experiment, all three starting sizes of age-0 steelhead (small, 2-3 g; medium, 3-4 g; large, 4-5 g) held in 3??C water had lower total lipid weight than those held in 6??C and 9??C water. Large fish had higher total lipid weight than small fish at the onset of the experiment and retained higher amounts at the end. However, large...
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The sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria is a valuable North Pacific Ocean species that, when not targeted in various commercial fisheries, is often a part of discarded bycatch. Predictions of the survival of discarded fish are dependent on understanding how a fish responds to stressful conditions. Our objective was to describe the immunological health of sablefish exposed to capture stressors. In laboratory experiments designed to simulate the capture process, we subjected sablefish to various stressors that might influence survival: towing in a net, hooking, elevated seawater and air temperatures, and air exposure time. After stress was imposed, the in vitro mitogen-stimulated proliferation of sablefish leukocytes was...
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Daily consumption was estimated from the stomach contents of walleyes Sander vitreus collected weekly from Oneida Lake, New York, during June-October 1975, 1992, 1993, and 1994 for one to four age-groups per year. Field rations were highly variable between weeks, and trends in ration size varied both seasonally and annually. The coefficient of variation for weekly field rations within years and ages ranged from 45% to 97%. Field estimates were compared with simulated consumption from a bioenergetics model. The simulation averages of daily ration deviated from those of the field estimates by -20.1% to +70.3%, with a mean across all simulations of +14.3%. The deviations for each time step were much greater than those...
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Studies of the demographic characteristics of the American eel Anguilla rostrata over broad spatial scales are scarce. Eels in the Shenandoah River drainage and lower Potomac River tributaries of Virginia were sampled over 2 years in both inland and near-coastal areas to describe the demographic characteristics in each area and document drainagewide patterns. Eels from the inland Shenandoah River drainage were significantly longer (median = 767 mm total length) and older (median = 11.5 years) than those found in the near-coastal Potomac River tributaries (median total length = 142 mm; median age = 2.0 years). In addition, the sex ratio varied in Potomac River tributaries, but only female were found in the Shenandoah...
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Mark-recapture data from the federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, were analyzed from 1989 to 2002 to determine large-scale movement patterns and distribution. A total of 14,674 recaptures from 7,127 unique fish were documented; 87% of the recaptures occurred in the same main-stem river reach or tributary as the original captures, suggesting restricted distribution by most fish. A total of 99% of all recaptures were from in and around the Little Colorado River (LCR), a tributary of the Colorado River and primary aggregation and spawning location of humpback chub in Grand Canyon. Time at liberty averaged 394 d, but some fish were recaptured near their main-stem capture...
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In 1998, the Quaker Neck Dam was removed from the Neuse River near Goldsboro, North Carolina, restoring access to more than 120 km of potential main-stem spawning habitat and 1,488 km of potential tributary spawning habitat to anadromous fishes. We used plankton sampling and standardized electrofishing to examine the extent to which anadromous fishes utilized this restored spawning habitat in 2003 and 2004. Evidence of spawning activity was detected upstream of the former dam site for three anadromous species: American shad Alosa sapidissima, hickory shad A. mediocris, and striped bass Morone saxatilis. The percentages of eggs and larvae collected in the restored upstream habitat were greater in 2003, when spring...
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We examined the effects of surgically and gastrically implanted radio transmitters (representing 2.3-5.5% of body weight) on the growth and feeding behavior of 192 juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (114-159 mm in fork length). Throughout the 54-d study, the 48 fish with transmitters in their stomachs (gastric fish) consistently grew more slowly than fish with surgically implanted transmitters (surgery fish), fish with surgery but no implanted transmitter (sham-surgery fish), or fish exposed only to handling (control fish). Growth rates of surgery fish were also slightly impaired at day 21, but by day 54 they were growing at rates comparable with those of control fish. Despite differences in growth,...
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We compared the diets among members of the diverse darter community of French Creek, Pennsylvania, in relation to seasonal prey availability, feeding ontogeny, and sex. Prey taxa and size attributes were characterized for nine syntopic darter species; taxon, size, and availability of macroinvertebrate prey were also analyzed from Surber samples. In general, darters fed opportunistically on immature insects; few taxa were consumed in greater proportions than they were found in the environment. Some variation in diet composition was expressed, however, among different life stages and species. Juvenile darters consumed smaller prey and more chironomids than did adults. Etheostoma blennioides and E. zonale consumed...
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Systematic underestimation of fish age can impede understanding of recruitment variability and adaptive strategies (like longevity) and can bias estimates of survivorship. We suspected that previous estimates of annual survival (S; range = 0.20-0.44) for Lake Superior ciscoes Coregonus artedi developed from scale ages were biased low. To test this hypothesis, we estimated the total instantaneous mortality rate of adult ciscoes from the Thunder Bay, Ontario, stock by use of cohort-based catch curves developed from commercial gill-net catches and otolith-aged fish. Mean S based on otolith ages was greater for adult females (0.80) than for adult males (0.75), but these differences were not significant. Applying the...
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Stocking levels of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for Lake Ontario have been highly controversial since the early 1990s, largely because of uncertainties about lakewide abundance and rates of prey consumption. Previous estimates have focused on years before 1995; since then, however, the Lake Ontario ecosystem has undergone substantial changes, and there is new evidence of extensive natural recruitment. Presented here are new abundance estimates of Chinook salmon and alewives Alosa pseudoharengus in Lake Ontario and a reevaluation of the potential risk of alewife population collapse. We found that Lake Ontario has been supporting, on average (1989–2005), 1.83 × 106 (range, 1.08 × 106 to 3.24 × 106) Chinook...
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Historically, Lake Superior has contained many morphologically distinct forms of the lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that have occupied specific depths and locations and spawned at specific times of the year. Today, as was probably the case historically, the siscowet morphotype is the most abundant. Recent interest in harvesting siscowets to extract oil containing omega-3 fatty acids will require additional knowledge of the biology and stock structure of these lightly exploited populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether shape differences exist among siscowet populations across Lake Superior and whether these shape differences can be used to infer stock structure. Morphometric analysis (truss...


map background search result map search result map Lakewide estimates of alewife biomass and Chinook salmon abundance and consumption in Lake Ontario, 1989–2005: implications for prey fish sustainability Long-term trends in habitat use of offshore demersal fishes in western Lake Huron suggest large-scale ecosystem change Lakewide estimates of alewife biomass and Chinook salmon abundance and consumption in Lake Ontario, 1989–2005: implications for prey fish sustainability Long-term trends in habitat use of offshore demersal fishes in western Lake Huron suggest large-scale ecosystem change