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Frequent surveys of eight cross sections located in self-formed reaches of the East Fork River, Wyoming, during the 1974 snowmelt flood showed a close relation between channel morphology and scour and fill. Those cross sections narrower than the mean reach width filled at discharges less than bankfull and scoured at discharges greater than bankfull. Those cross sections wider than the mean reach width scoured at discharges less than bankfull and filled at discharges greater than bankfull. The accumulation and depletion of sand-sized bed material in a cross section was concentrated in the near-bank parts of the stream channel and thus significantly influenced bank stability and retreat. In those cross sections that...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Research
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Physical parameters characterizing solute transport in the Snake River (an acidic and metal-rich mountain stream near Montezuma, Colorado) were variable along a 5.2-km study reach. Stream cross-sectional area and volumetric inflow each varied by a factor of 3. Because of transient storage, the residence time of injected tracers in the Snake River was longer than would be calculated by consideration of convective travel time alone. Distributed inflows along the stream were a significant source of in-stream chemical variations. These transport characteristics of the Snake River were established on the basis of the assumption of lithium as an ideally conservative tracer and use of simulations of advection, dispersion,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Research
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From mythology, archeology, and chronicles of early explorers we can learn how early Americans viewed the cause and effect relations of hydrologic phenomena. Hopes and fears are the basis of religion, and it was through religion that water management was first practiced. Early people used their water resources to develop diverse civilizations in various parts of the western hemisphere. Not only was the rise of these earlier civilizations hydrologically influenced, but also the downfall of some was related to natural or man-made hydrological crises in which gods and mythology continued to play a role.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Research
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A water-balance model is used to simulate time series of water-year runoff for 4 km ?? 4 km grid cells for the conterminous United States during the 1900-2008 period. Model outputs are used to examine the separate effects of precipitation and temperature on runoff variability. Overall, water-year runoff has increased in the conterminous United States and precipitation has accounted for almost all of the variability in water-year runoff during the past century. In contrast, temperature effects on runoff have been small for most locations in the United States even during periods when temperatures for most of the United States increased significantly. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Research
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An experimental injection was performed to study the transport of stream water solutes under conditions of significant interaction with streambed sediments in a mountain pool-and-riffle stream. Experiments were conducted in Little Lost Man Creek, Humboldt County, California, in a period of low flow duringwhich only a part of the bank-full channel held active surface flow. The injection of chloride and several trace cations lasted 20 days. In this report we discuss the results of the first 24 hours of the injection and survey the results of the first 10 days. Solute-streambed interactions of two types were observed. First, the physical transport of the conservative tracer, chloride, was affected by intergravel flow...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Research
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The linear programing-superposition method is presented for managing multiple sources of groundwater pollution over time. The method uses any linear solute transport simulation model to generate a unit source-concentration response matrix that is incorporated into a management model. This series of constraints indicates local solute concentration histories that will result from any series of waste injection schedules. The linear program operates on the matrix to arrive at optimal disposal schedules. An example demonstrates application of the method to maximizing groundwater waste disposal while maintaining water quality of local water supplies within desired limits. Flow field variations associated with waste injection...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Research
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In the past decade, there has been a growing interest of dam safety officials to incorporate a risk‐based analysis for design‐flood hydrology. Extreme or rare floods, with probabilities in the range of about 10−3 to 10−7 chance of occurrence per year, are of continuing interest to the hydrologic and engineering communities for purposes of planning and design of structures such as dams [National Research Council, 1988]. The National Research Council stresses that as much information as possible about floods needs to be used for evaluation of the risk and consequences of any decision. A regional interdisciplinary paleoflood approach was developed to assist dam safety officials and floodplain managers in their assessments...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Research
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Sulfate concentration and pH were determined in surface water, groundwater, and precipitation samples collected in the Filson Creek watershed to evaluate the sources of sulfate in Filson Creek. During and immediately after snowmelt, sulfate concentrations in Filson Creek increased from about 2 to 14 mg/l.-from Author
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Research
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In recent years many models have been developed which simulate the quality of rainfall runoff from urban areas. Common to many of these models is the use of an exponential washoff equation. This washoff equation is often modified by an availability equation to account for the effects of runoff intensity on constituent washoff. Optimization techniques for estimating the values of coefficients used in these equations have been developed. Application of these techniques to a small urban watershed in south Florida demonstrated considerable variability in the optimized parameter values among different storms and among different constituents.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Research
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Previous studies indicate predominantly increasing trends in precipitation across the Western United States, while at the same time, historical streamflow records indicate decreasing summertime streamflow and 25th percentile annual flows. These opposing trends could be viewed as paradoxical, given that several studies suggest that increased annual precipitation will equate to increased annual groundwater recharge, and therefore increased summertime flow. To gain insight on mechanisms behind these potential changes, we rely on a calibrated, integrated surface and groundwater model to simulate climate impacts on surface water/groundwater interactions using 12 general circulation model projections of temperature and...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Research
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Hydraulic tomography is a promising approach for obtaining information on variations in hydraulic conductivity on the scale of relevance for contaminant transport investigations. This approach involves performing a series of pumping tests in a format similar to tomography. We present a field‐scale assessment of hydraulic tomography in a porous aquifer, with an emphasis on the steady shape analysis methodology. The hydraulic conductivity (K) estimates from steady shape and transient analyses of the tomographic data compare well with those from a tracer test and direct‐push permeameter tests, providing a field validation of the method. Zonations based on equal‐thickness layers and cross‐hole radar surveys are used...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Research
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Reliable predictions of sediment transport and river morphology in response to variations in natural and human-induced drivers are necessary for river engineering and management. Because engineering and management applications may span a wide range of space and time scales, a broad spectrum of modeling approaches has been developed, ranging from suspended-sediment "rating curves" to complex three-dimensional morphodynamic models. Suspended sediment rating curves are an attractive approach for evaluating changes in multi-year sediment budgets resulting from changes in flow regimes because they are simple to implement, computationally efficient, and the empirical parameters can be estimated from quantities that are...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Research
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The subsurface transfer of water from a mountain block to an adjacent basin (mountain block recharge (MBR)) is a commonly invoked mechanism of recharge to intermountain basins. However, MBR estimates are highly uncertain. We present an approach to characterize bulk fluid circulation in a mountain block and thus MBR that utilizes environmental tracers from the basin aquifer. Noble gas recharge temperatures, groundwater ages, and temperature data combined with heat and fluid flow modeling are used to identify clearly improbable flow regimes in the southeastern Salt Lake Valley, Utah, and adjacent Wasatch Mountains. The range of possible MBR rates is reduced by 70%. Derived MBR rates (5.5–12.6 × 104 m3 d−1) are on...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Research
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A nonnormal and heteroscedastic Tobit model is used to determine the primary factors that affect nitrate concentrations in near-surface aquifers, using data from the U.S. Geological Survey collected in 1991. Both normality and homoscedasticity of errors are rejected, justifying the use of a nonnormal and heteroscedastic model. The following factors are found to have significant impacts on nitrate concentrations in groundwater: well screen interval, depth to top of aquifers, percentages of urban residential, forest land, and pasture within 3.2 km, dissolved oxygen concentration level, and presence of a chemical facility and feedlot. The effects of explanatory variables on nitrate concentration are explored further...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Research
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Pumping of an unconfined aquifer can cause local desaturation detectable with high‐resolution gravimetry. A previous study showed that signal‐to‐noise ratios could be predicted for gravity measurements based on a hydrologic model. We show that although changes should be detectable with gravimeters, estimations of hydraulic conductivity and specific yield based on gravity data alone are likely to be unacceptably inaccurate and imprecise. In contrast, a transect of low‐quality drawdown data alone resulted in accurate estimates of hydraulic conductivity and inaccurate and imprecise estimates of specific yield. Combined use of drawdown and gravity data, or use of high‐quality drawdown data alone, resulted in unbiased...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Research
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Injection of liquid waste into a highly transmissive, saltwater-bearing, fractured dolomite underlying the city of St. Petersburg, Florida, provided an opportunity to study density-dependent flow associated with two miscible and density-different liquids. The injection zone was 98 m thick with a radial hydraulic conductivity of 762 m/d and a vertical hydraulic conductivity of 152 m/d. Mean chloride concentrations of the injectant during two tests of 91 and 366 days duration were 180 and 170 mg/L, respectively, whereas chloride concentration of native salt water ranged from 19,000 to 20,000 mg/L. During the 366-day test, chloride concentration in water from a well open to the upper part of the injection zone 223...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Research
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Cloud water can be a significant hydrologic input to mountain forests. Because it is a precipitation source that is vulnerable to climate change, it is important to quantify amounts of cloud water input at watershed and regional scales. During this study, cloud water and rain samples were collected monthly for 2 years at sites on windward and leeward East Maui. The difference in isotopic composition between volume‐weighted average cloud water and rain samples was 1.4‰ δ18O and 12‰ δ2H for the windward site and 2.8‰ δ18O and 25‰ δ2H for the leeward site, with the cloud water samples enriched in 18O and 2H relative to the rain samples. A summary of previous literature shows that fog and/or cloud water is enriched...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Research
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Flow regulation by large dams affects downstream flow competence and channel maintenance. Debris flows from 740 tributaries in Grand Canyon, Arizona, transport coarse‐grained sediment onto debris fans adjacent to the Colorado River. These debris fans constrict the river to form rapids and are reworked during river flows that entrain particles and transport them downstream. Beginning in 1963, flood control operations of Glen Canyon Dam limited the potential for reworking of aggraded debris fans. We analyzed change in debris fans at the mouths of 75‐Mile and Monument Creeks using photogrammetry of aerial photography taken from 1965 to 2000 and supplemented with ground surveys performed from 1987 to 2005. Our results...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Research
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Parts of the South Platte River alluvial aquifer in northeastern Colorado are underlain by the Pierre Shale, a marine deposit of Late Cretaceous age that is <1000 m thick. Ground water in the aquifer is contaminated with NO3‐, and the shale contains abundant potential electron donors for denitrification in the forms of organic carbon and sulfide minerals. Nested piezometers were sampled, pore water was squeezed from cores of shale, and an injection test was conducted to determine if denitrification in the shale was a sink for alluvial NO3− and to measure denitrification rates in the shale. Measured values of NO3−, N2, NH4+, δ15N[NO3−], δ15N[N2], and δ15N[NH4+] in the alluvial and shale pore water indicated that...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Research
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Groundwater vulnerability is a central concept in pollution risk assessment, yet its estimation has been largely a matter of expert judgment. This work applies a method for the direct calculation of vulnerability from monitoring well observations of pesticide concentrations. The method has two major advantages: it is independent of the compounds being examined, and it has a direct probabilistic interpretation making it ideal for risk assessment. The methodology was applied to data from a groundwater monitoring program in the midwestern United States. The distribution of the vulnerabilities was skewed toward zero. Spatial distribution of the vulnerabilities shows them to be controlled by both regional and local factors....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Research


map background search result map search result map Role of surface-water and groundwater interactions on projected summertime streamflow in snow dominated regions : An integrated modeling approach Role of surface-water and groundwater interactions on projected summertime streamflow in snow dominated regions : An integrated modeling approach