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Investigation of water resources by the United States Geological Survey has consisted in large part of measurements of the volume of flow of streams and studies of the conditions affecting that flow, but it has comprised also investigation of such closely allied subjects as irrigation, water storage, water powers, underground waters, and quality of waters. Most of the results of these investigations have been published in the series of water-supply papers, but some have appeared in the monographs, bulletins, professional papers, and annual reports.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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A one-dimensional, unsteady-flow model was calibrated, validated, and applied to a 30.4-mile reach of the Roanoke River between State Highway 42-11 bridge near Oak City (river mile 67.0) and the U.S. Highway 17-13 bridge at Williamston (river mile 36.6) North Carolina. The model was calibrated and validated for flows ranging from about 2,000 to 12,000 cubic feet per second. The model was used to compute daily mean flows at selected locations in the study reach for water years 1988-90. Flows were calculated for the range of conditions for which the model was calibrated and validated. Simulated monthly mean flows at river mile 67.0 were within 5 percent of measured flows at a gaging station at river mile 137.0, after...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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The effects of underground mining and mine collapse on areal hydrology were determined at one site where the mined bed of coal lies above major streams and at two sites where the bed of coal lies below major streams. Subsidence cracks observed at land surface generally run parallel to predominant joint sets in the rocks. The mining and subsidence cracks increase hydraulic conductivity and interconnection of water-bearing rock units, which in turn cause increased infiltration of precipitation and surface water, decreased evapotranspiration, and higher base flows in some small streams. Water levels in observation wells in mined areas fluctuate as much as 100 ft annually. Both gaining and losing streams are found in...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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Vegetation on the floor of Owens Valley, California, is composed predominantly of phreatophytic desert communities that are adapted to small quantities of precipitation and alkaline soils. These plant communities are believed to be dependent on the continuing presence of a shallow water table. Maintaining existing plant communities is important to preserve the environmental quality of the valley. Proposals to pump additional quantities of ground water from the valley for export to the city of Los Angeles caused concern about the effect of pumping on the existing vegetation and how the plants would adapt to short- or long-term declines of the shallow water table. To test the ability of selected major shrub species...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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Seventeen methods for estimating ice-affected streamflow are evaluated for potential use with the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station network. The methods evaluated were identified by written responses from U.S. Geological Survey field offices and by a comprehensive literature search. The methods selected and techniques used for applying the methods are described in this report. The methods are evaluated by comparing estimated results with data collected at three streamflow-gaging stations in Iowa during the winter of 1987-88. Discharge measurements were obtained at 1- to 5-day intervals during the ice-affected periods at the three stations to define an accurate baseline record. Discharge records were...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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The aquifers underlying the 134.6-square-mile city of Philadelphia are divided by the Fall Line into the unconsolidated aquifers (chiefly sand and gravel) of the Coastal Plain and the consolidated-rock aquifers (chiefly schist of the Wissahickon Formation) of the Piedmont. Ground water is present under confined and unconfined conditions. The principal units of the confined-aquifer system are the lower and middle sands of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system. The lower sand unit is the most productive aquifer in Philadelphia. The median yield of wells screened in the lower sand unit is 275 gal/min (gallons per minute), and yields of some wells are as high as 1,350 gal/min. The median specific capacity is 16...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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Available surface water-quality data were used to provide an initial assessment of current water-quality conditions for 1978-86, define long-term trends in constituent concentrations, and relate current water-quality conditions and trends to human and natural factors in the lower Kansas River basin, Kansas and Nebraska. This basin drains 15,300 square miles of predominantly agricultural land and is one of seven areas selected for study as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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The Mokelumne River basin of central California comprises portions of the California Trough and the Sierra Nevada section of the Pacific Mountain system. The California Trough is divisible into four subsections-the Delta tidal plain, the Victor alluvial plain, tlie river flood plains and channels, and the Arroyo Seco dissected pediment. These four subsections comprise the land forms produced by the Mokelumne River and other streams since the Sierra Nevada attained its present height in the Pleistocene epoch. The Victor alluvial plain rises eastward from the Delta plain and abuts on the dissected Arroyo Seco pediment; in the Mokelumne area it is 12 to 16 miles wide and slopes between 5 and 8 feet in a mile. It includes...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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Determinations of the quantity of solid material carried by the Colorado River are necessary for the proper consideration of plans for the development of the resources of the river. Much of the material carried by the river will be deposited in the proposed reservoirs and eventually will occupy a large part of the capacity of the reservoirs, so that their effectiveness for flood control or river regulation will be greatly decreased. A capacity of 6,000,000 acre-feet is reserved for silt storage in plans for a reservoir in Boulder Canyon that is to have a maximum capacity of about 25,000,000 to 30,000,000 acre-feet. It has been estimated that such a silt-storage capacity will not be entirely used for nearly 100 years.1...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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A set of maps depicting approved boundaries of, and numerical codes for, river-basin units of the United States has been developed by the U.S . Geological Survey. These 'Hydrologic Unit Maps' are four-color maps that present information on drainage, culture, hydrography, and hydrologic boundaries and codes of (1) the 21 major water-resources regions and the 222 subregions designated by the U.S . Water Resources Council, (2) the 352 accounting units of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Data Network, and (3) the 2,149 cataloging units of the U.S . Geological Survey's 'Catalog of information on Water Data:' The maps are plotted on the Geological Survey State base-map series at a scale of 1 :500,000 and, except...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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A one-dimensional model capable of simulating flow in a network of interconnected channels has been applied to the tidal Potomac River including its major tributaries and embayments between Washington, D.C., and Indian Head, Md. The model can be used to compute water-surface elevations and flow discharges at any of 66 predetermined locations or at any alternative river cross sections definable within the network of channels. In addition, the model can be used to provide tidal-interchange flow volumes and to evaluate tidal excursions and the flushing properties of the riverine system. Comparisons of model-computed results with measured watersurface elevations and discharges demonstrate the validity and accuracy of...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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Five principal creeks, First Creek, Second Creek, Wood Creek, Third Creek, and Incline Creek, having a cumulative drainage of 17.8 square miles, furnished a yearly average of about 15,000 acre-feet of runoff, mainly snowmelt, to Lake Tahoe during the 1970-73 water years. Annual runoff from the individual streams ranged from 460 to 7,070 acre-feet, and discharges ranged from 0.2 to 110 cubic feet per second. During the 4 years, the five streams delivered to Lake Tahoe 31,000 tons of sediment, which averaged about 75 percent gravel and sand, 15 percent silt, and 10 percent clay. Annual cumulative sediment load for the five creeks ranged from 1,500 to 11,000 tons; individual streams furnished 20 to 5,200 tons annually....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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During 1979-81, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a large-scale study of the Apalachicola River in northwest Florida, the largest and one of the most economically important rivers in the State. Termed the Apalachicola River Quality Assessment, the study emphasized interrelations among hydrodynamics, the flood-plain forest, and the nutrient-detritus flow through the river system to the estuary. This report summarizes major findings of the study. Data on accumulation of toxic substances in sediments and benthic organisms in the river were also collected. Because of the multiple uses of the Apalachicola River system, there are many difficult management decisions. The river is a waterway for shipping; hence there...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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Predicting the fate of organic compounds in streams and rivers often requires knowledge of the volatilization characteristics of the compounds. The reference-substance concept, involving laboratory-determined ratios of the liquid-film coefficients for volatilization of the organic compounds to the liquid-film coefficient for oxygen absorption, is used to predict liquid-film coefficients for streams and rivers. In the absence of experimental data, two procedures have been used for estimating these liquid-film coefficient ratios. These procedures, based on the molecular-diffusion coefficient and on the molecular weight, have been widely used but never extensively evaluated. Liquid-film coefficients for the volatilization...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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A statistical analysis of data from wells drilled into the crystalline rocks of the Piedmont and Blue Ridge provinces of North Carolina verified and refined previously proposed criteria for the siting of wells to obtain greater than average yields. An opportunity to test the criteria was provided by the expansion of the town of Cary's municipal ground-water system. Three criteria were used: type of rock, thickness of saturated regolith based upon topography, and presence of fractures and joints based upon drainage lineations. A conceptual model of the local hydrogeologic system was developed to guide the selection of the most favorable well sites, and on the basis of the model, six type sites were determined. Eleven...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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The Great Salt Lake in Utah is a large body of water bordered on the west by barren desert and on the east by a major metropolitan area. It is the fourth largest terminal lake in the world, covering about 2,300 square miles in 1986. Since its historic low elevation of 4,191.35 feet in 1963, the lake rose to a new historic high elevation of 4,21 1.85 feet in 1986. Most of this increase (12.2 feet) occurred after 1982. The rise has caused $285 million of damage to lakeside industries, transportation, farming, and wildlife. Accompanying the rapid rise in lake level has been a decrease in salinity-from 28 percent in 1963 to about 6 percent in 1986. This has resulted in changes in the biota of the lake from obligate...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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A three-dimensional finite-difference model of groundwater flow was used to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of riverbed and aquifer material in a 1-square-mile valley-fill aquifer system near a large river in which induced infiltration due to pumping cannot be measured directly. The aquifer consists of a 30- to 70-foot thickness of sand and gravel containing discontinuous layers of compact and silty sand and gravel. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer material, estimated through trial-and-error calibration of simulated water levels to drawdowns measured during an aquifer test, ranged from 500 to 10,000 feet per day; anisotropy (ratio of horizontal to vertical hydraulic conductivity) ranged from...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper


map background search result map search result map Geology and ground-water hydrology of the Mokelumne area, California Geology and ground-water hydrology of the Mokelumne area, California