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This report gives a summarized description of the public water supplies in 77 counties of eastern Texas, extending from the Louisiana boundary to a northsouth line approximately along the ninety-seventh meridian. It gives the available data as follows for each of 323 communities: The population of the community; the name of the official from whom the information was obtained; the ownership of the waterworks, whether private or municipal; the source of supply, whether ground or surface water; the amount of water consumed; the facilities for storage; the number of customers served; the character of the chemical and sanitary treatment of the water, if any; and the chemical analyses of the water. Where ground water...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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The term “seepage water” is used by the irrigators of the West to designate the water which reaches the lowest grounds or the stream channels, swelling the latter by imperceptible degrees and keeping up the flow long after the rains have ceased and the snow has melted. The word “seepage” is applied particularly to the water which begins to appear in spots below irrigation canals and cultivated fields, usually some months or even years after irrigation has been introduced, and which tends to convert the lowlands into marshes and gives rise to springs, which in turn may be employed in watering other fields.The importance of a thorough knowledge of the behavior of seepage water is obvious when consideration is given...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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This report, which describes the San Juan Canyon, San Juan River and the tributary streams and the geography and to some extent the geology of the region, presents information obtained by me during the descent of the river with the Trimble party in 1921. The exploration of the canyon, which was financed jointly by the United States Geological Survey and the Southern California Edison Co., had as its primary object the mapping and study of the San Juan in connection with proposed power and storage projects along this and Colorado rivers.1 The exploration party was headed by K. W. Thimble, topographic engineer of the United States Geological Survey. Other members of the party were Robert N. Allen, Los Angeles, Calif.,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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The writer has planned and partly prepared a series of six papers on ground water in the United States. These papers are to deal with (1) occurrence, (2) origin, discharge, and quantity, (3) movement and head, (4) quality, (5) recovery and use, and (6) ground-water provinces. The present paper is the first of the series.The writer is indebted to many colaborers for assistance in preparing this paper, especially to the following members of the United States Geological Survey: M. R. Campbell, who read the entire paper; E. W. Shaw, C. E. Van Orstrand, A. F. Melcher, and C. K. Wentworth, who examined Chapter I; W. C. Alden, who examined Chapters II and IV with special reference to their statements regarding glacial...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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The present report describes the results of a hydrogeologic reconnaissance in the Mekong Delta region by the writer, a hydrogeologist of the U.S. Geological Survey, while on assignment as an adviser to the Vietnamese Directorate of Water Supply from October 1968 to April 1970 under the auspices of the U.s. Agency for International Development. The delta of the Mekong River, comprising an area of about 70,000 square kilometres in South Vietnam and Cambodia, is an almost featureless plain rising gradually from sea level to about 5 metres above sea level at its apex 300 kilometres inland. Most of the shallow ground water in the Holocene Alluvium of the delta in Vietnam is brackish or saline down to depths of 50 to...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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Rainfall, streamflow, sediment, and turbidity data are being collected as part of a study to evaluate the effects of highway construction on sediment discharge. The study is also designed to determine the effectiveness of different erosion-control measures in reducing sediment discharges. The study area, near Enola, Pa., consists of five adjacent drainage basins, four of which will be crossed by Interstate 81. Ninety percent of the land in each of the basins is in forest or grass. Active farmland accounts for less than 10 percent, and the remainder is in roadways and buildings. The major factor affecting sediment concentrations and discharges was the construction of a one-lane roadway and a 5-acre (2 hm2) farm pond...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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The sediment-transport characteristics of streams were determined in a 15,500-square-kilometre (6,000-square-mile) area of the Coastal Plain and Piedmont regions of eastern North Carolina during 1969-73. The study covered all or parts of 21 counties and included data for 28 sediment-sampling stations in parts of 4 major river basins?the Roanoke, Pamlico, Neuse, and Cape Fear. Annual suspended-sediment yields ranged from 117 to 4.2 tonnes per square kilometre (333 to 12 tons per square mile). Streams in the Piedmont region have the highest yields. Suspended-sediment yield decreases in an eastward direction from the Piedmont to the Coastal Plain region. Sediment characteristics are directly affected by topography,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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Concentrations of organic matter in the general range of 1-10 milligrams per litre organic carbon are common in natural water, and many naturally occurrin7 organic compounds form aluminum complexes. The aluminum concentrations in near-neutral pH solutions may be 10-100 times higher than the values predicted from solubility data if formation of such organic complexes is ignored. The processes of polymerization of aluminum hydroxide and precipitation of gibbsite are inhibited by the presence of the organic flavone compound quercetin in concentrations as low as 10 x -5.3 mole per litre. Quercetin forms a complex, with a probable molar ratio of 1:2 aluminum to quercetin, that has a formation constant (f12) of about...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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This paper presents and interprets data from three cycles of injection, storage, and recovery of freshwater in a brackish aquifer through wells drilled at the Hialeah Water Treatment Plant in northeastern Dade County, Florida. Also described is an application of solute-transport modeling techniques to depict the hypothetical movement of the freshwater mass and to simulate the increasing salinity of the recovered water during the withdrawal phases. This paper also reports results of use of the calibrated model to predict recovery efficiencies in hypothetical future operational schedules of injection and recovery.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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Ground water, the water we pump from the Earth through wells or that which flows naturally from springs, is one of North Dakota's most valuable resources. More than 60 percent of the people living in the State use ground water for one purpose of another. It is the only source of water for thousands of farm families and their livestock. Almost all smaller cities and villages depend solely on groudn water as a source of supply. Increasingly, ground water is being used to irrigate crops and grasslands (fig. 1) during protracted dry spells so common in North Dakota. During recent years there has been a rapid development of rural water ditribution systems in which thousands of farms and rurals residences are connected...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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Floodflows on natural-flow streams in Massachusetts with drainage areas between 0.25 square miles and 260 square miles may be estimated from drainage area, main-channel slope, mean basin elevation, and the area of swamps, lakes, and ponds. Multiple-regression techniques were used to define the relationship between a suite of basin and climatic characteristics and flood peaks in three flood-frequency regions at a total of 95 sites. Station flood-frequency data were computed following guidelines in Bulletin 17A of the U.S. Water Resources Council. The frequency analyses are based upon weighted skew values, adjustments for high and low outliers, and historic peak data. Regression equations for estimation of peak discharges...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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Aqueous aluminum solutions containing 4.5 ? 10 4 molar aluminum in 0.01 molar NaC104 were partly neutralized with NaOH to give OH:A1 mole ratios from 1.40 to 2.76. Measured amounts of montmorillonite, kaolinite, volcanic ash, or feldspathic sand were added to provide an area of inert surface. Reactions that occurred during 100 days of aging were compared with those in similar solutions without added surfaces, studied in earlier work. Adsorption of monomeric species Al(H20)6+3, AlOH(H2O)5+2, and Al(OH)2(H2O 4? on the added surfaces follows a cation exchange mass law equilibrium model, and adsorption is essentially complete in 1 hour. Only minor changes in monomeric aluminum species occurred after that. Rapid adsorption...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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During 1987-91, chemical data were collected for pesticides and other organic compounds in surface water, streambed sediment, suspended sediment, agricultural soil, and aquatic biota to determine the occurrence, distribution, transport, and fate of organic compounds in the Yakima River basin in Washington. The report describes the chemical and physical properties of the compounds most frequently detected in the water column; organochlorine compounds including DDT, organophosphorus compounds, thiocarbamate and sulfite compounds, acetamide and triazine compounds, and chlorophenoxy-acetic acid and benzoic compounds. Concentrations are evaluated relative to chronic-toxicity water quality criteria and guidelines for...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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Descriptions of the geohydrology, flow-system conceptualization, and stream-aquifer relations are presented based on digital-model analysis. Simulation results are used to assess the basin's water resources for the historical drought of 1986. Potential effects of increased ground-water pumpage on the stream-aquifer system are described and illustrated using detailed water budgets and maps showing the ground-water-level surface and water-level changes caused by simulated pumpage increases during drought conditions.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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Available surface water-quality data were used to provide an initial assessment of current water-quality conditions for 1978-86, define long-term trends in constituent concentrations, and relate current water-quality conditions and trends to human and natural factors in the lower Kansas River basin, Kansas and Nebraska. This basin drains 15,300 square miles of predominantly agricultural land and is one of seven areas selected for study as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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Abundant supplies of fresh water are obtained from deep artesian wells In all parts of Kleberg County. The water is derived from a stratum of sand, 10 to 150 feet thick, which usually has been referred to the Goliad sand but possibly may be at the base of the LIssie formation. The top of the sand Is reached at depths of around 400 feet In the western part of the county, 600 to 700 feet In the locality of Klngsville, and 1,250 to 1,450 feet In the eastern part of the county. Small supplies of fairly good water are obtained from shallow wells In very sandy areas in the eastern and southern parts of the county, but with this exception, so far as known, no good water has been obtained In the county either above or below...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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A one-dimensional, unsteady-flow model was calibrated, validated, and applied to a 30.4-mile reach of the Roanoke River between State Highway 42-11 bridge near Oak City (river mile 67.0) and the U.S. Highway 17-13 bridge at Williamston (river mile 36.6) North Carolina. The model was calibrated and validated for flows ranging from about 2,000 to 12,000 cubic feet per second. The model was used to compute daily mean flows at selected locations in the study reach for water years 1988-90. Flows were calculated for the range of conditions for which the model was calibrated and validated. Simulated monthly mean flows at river mile 67.0 were within 5 percent of measured flows at a gaging station at river mile 137.0, after...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper
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The Great Salt Lake in Utah is a large body of water bordered on the west by barren desert and on the east by a major metropolitan area. It is the fourth largest terminal lake in the world, covering about 2,300 square miles in 1986. Since its historic low elevation of 4,191.35 feet in 1963, the lake rose to a new historic high elevation of 4,21 1.85 feet in 1986. Most of this increase (12.2 feet) occurred after 1982. The rise has caused $285 million of damage to lakeside industries, transportation, farming, and wildlife. Accompanying the rapid rise in lake level has been a decrease in salinity-from 28 percent in 1963 to about 6 percent in 1986. This has resulted in changes in the biota of the lake from obligate...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Supply Paper