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Ice on rivers and lakes has many important influences on design and construction of structures, operation of shipping, flow and circulation, water quality, and other factors related to the use of the water resources. Human interest in understanding these influences has led to many programs of data collection, research, and investigations for a century or more. The body of literature reporting on these studies includes several thousand items in textbooks, proceedings, journals, and technical reports. By far, the largest part of the studies were in the United States, Canada, and the Soviet Union. For the sake of this bibliography, the literature can be classified as dealing with basic characteristics of ice; freezing...
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The Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore is underlain by unconsolidated lake and glacial deposits which have been divided into three units. Unit 1 is comprised mostly of sand and, in the western part of the National Lakeshore, is capable of yielding more than 500 gallons per minute (32 litres per second) to properly constructed wells. Unit 2, a silt till below unit 1, has little potential as a source of water for public supplies within the National Lakeshore area. Unit 4, a clay till under unit 2, is capable of yielding from 10 to 65 gallons per minute (0.6 to 4 litres per second) throughout the National Lakeshore.Precipitation samples collected at the National Lakeshore had average inorganic ion concentrations ranging...
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Flood-frequency studies for urban areas in several parts of the United States and flood-frequency relations for natural streams of Oklahoma were used to develop a set of flood-frequency equations for urban areas of Oklahoma. Equations arepresented for estimating the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year flood-peak discharges for basins of 0.5 to 100 mil (1.3 to 260 km2).
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Water-quality data for the Red River mainstem and the North Fork Red River basin within Oklahoma, through 1979, were examined for water type and suitability for public water supply and irrigation use. Of 96 stations with available data, 53 stations or 55 percent were considered to have sufficient data for analysis. The classification of water type was based on the relation of the major ions: calcium, magnesium, sodium, carbonate, bicarbonate, sulfate, and chloride to each other within the range of measured specific conductance. The suitability of the water for use as a public supply was based on the concentration distribution of selected constituents. The constituents selected were those with maximum contaminant...
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This report presents the results of an investigation of ground-water resources in that part of the Yampa River basin between the towns of Craig and Steamboat Springs. The location of the study area is shown on the index map. The investigation was begun in 1975 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, Office of the State Engineer.
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Four laboratories involved in the routine analysis of wet-deposition samples participated in an interlaboratory comparison program managed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The four participants were: Illinois State Water Survey central analytical laboratory in Champaign, Illinois; U.S. Geological Survey national water-quality laboratories in Atlanta, Georgia, and Denver, Colorado; and Inland Waters Directorate national water-quality laboratory in Burlington, Ontario, Canada. Analyses of interlaboratory samples performed by the four laboratories from October 1983 through December 1984 were compared.Participating laboratories analyzed three types of interlaboratory samples--natural wet deposition, simulated wet deposition,...
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A variety of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) extraction procedures have been investigated for their applicability to samples from aquatic environments. The cold sulfuric-oxalic acid procedure was best suited to samples consisting of water, periphyton, and sediments. Due to cation and fulvic acid interferences, a spike with a known quantity of ATP was necessary to estimate losses when sediments were extracted. Variable colonization densities for periphyton required that several replicates be extracted to characterize acdurately the periphyton community. Extracted samples were stable at room temperature for one to five hours, depending on the ATP concentration, if the pH was below 2. Neutralized samples which were quick...
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Regional relations are defined for estimating the depths of floods having recurrence intervals ranging from 2 to 100 years for both natural and urban streams in Oklahoma. Contributing drainage area and the 2-year 24-hour rainfall are the only independent variables required for estimating flood depths for natural streams. For urban streams the percentage of the basin impervious and served by storm sewers is also required. The only limitations are that the stream be unregulated, that the main channels be unimproved, and that the contributing drainage area and the 2-year 24-hour rainfall be in the range of values used to derive the relations. The standard errors of estimate range from 24 percent for the 50- and 100-year...
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Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of Pueblo Reservoir are described on the basis of data collected from spring 1985 through fall 1989. Also included are discussions of water quality of the upper Arkansas River Basin and the reservoir as they relate to reservoir operations. Pueblo Reservoir is a multipurpose, main-stem reservoir on the Arkansas River about 6 miles west of Pueblo, Colorado. At the top of its conservation pool, the reservoir is more than 9 miles long and ranges in depth from a few feet at the inflow to about 155 feet at the dam. Pueblo Reservoir derives most of its contents from the Arkansas River, which comprises native and transmountain flow. With respect to water temperature, the...
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A 30.8-mile reach of the Red River of the North receives treated wastewater from plants at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, and streamflows from the Sheyenne River. A one-dimensional, steady-state, stream water-quality model, the Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model (QUAL2E), was calibrated and verified for summer streamflow conditions to simulate some of the biochemical processes that result from discharging treated wastewater into this reach of the river.Data obtained to define the river's transport conditions are measurements of channel geometry, streamflow, traveltime, specific conductance, and temperature. Data obtained to define the river's water-quality conditions are measurements of concentrations...
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Effects of urbanization have increased the frequency and size of floods along certain reaches of Harbor Brook and Crow Hollow Brook in Meriden, Conn. A floodprofile-modeling study was conducted to model the effects of selected channel and structural modifications on flood elevations and inundated areas. The study covered the reach of Harbor Brook downstream from Interstate 691 and the reach of Crow Hollow Brook downstream from Johnson Avenue. Proposed modifications, which include changes to bank heights, channel geometry, structural geometry, and streambed armoring on Harbor Brook and changes to bank heights on Crow Hollow Brook, significantly lower flood elevations. Results of the modeling indicate a significant...
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The Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) program is part of a multi-scale, inter-agency initiative to evaluate the effects of agricultural management systems on water quality in the midwest corn belt. The Minnesota MSEA project is one of five projects selected to represent the principal hydrogeologic settings and geographic diversity of prevailing management systems in the midwest corn belt. The Minnesota MSEA research area is located in the Anoka Sand Plain about 5 kilometers southwest of Princeton, Minnesota. The water-quality monitoring network within the 65-hectare research area consists of 29 observation wells and 22 multiport wells. Thirteen observation wells also are located outside the research area....
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Recharge to the basin-fill aquifer near Santa Fe, New Mexico, was investigated using chloride mass-balance methods. Chloride concentrations in water in the unsaturated zone indicate no recharge in areas where runoff and flooding do not occur. The mass of chloride stored in the upper part of the unsaturated zone in these areas would take about 6,000 to 8,000 years to accumulate, assuming the present (1989) chloride fluxes. Chloride concen- trations in water in the unsaturated zone beneath arroyo channels indicate that recharge does occur in these areas; chloride concentrations in this recharge water at two sites ranged from 40 to 60 milligrams per liter. Estimates of mountain-front recharge using a chloride balance...
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This report presents the results of a study to determine whether shallow ground water at Picatinny Arsenal Morris County, New Jersey, has been con- taminated as a result of operations at the open burning area, which is used for burning of waste explosives and materials contaminated with explosives. Results of previous investigations indicate that the soil in this area is contaminated with metals and organic compounds. Twenty-seven wells were sampled for analysis for inorganic constituents, nutrients, and explosive compounds. Selected wells also were sampled for analysis for base/neutral- and acid-extractable compounds, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and dioxin and furan compounds. Surface-water and streambed-...
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The permeability of soils in Mississippi was determined and mapped using a geographic information system (GIS). Soil permeabilities in Mississippi were determined to range in value from nearly 0.0 to values exceeding 5.0 inches per hour. The U.S. Soil Conservation Service's State Soil Geographic Data Base (STATSGO) was used as the primary source of data for the determination of area-weighted soil permeability. STATSGO provides soil layer properties that are spatially referenced to mapped areas. These mapped areas are referred to as polygons in the GIS. The polygons arc boundaries of soils mapped as a group and are given unique Map Unit Identifiers (MUIDs). The data describing the physical characteristics of the...
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The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, studied the frequency and magnitude of flooding near the mouths of five tributaries to the New River in the New River Gorge National River. The 100-year peak discharge at each tributary was determined from regional frequency equations. The 100-year discharge at Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek was 3,400 cubic feet per second, 640 cubic feet per second, 8,200 cubic feet per second, 7,100 cubic feet per second, and 9,400 cubic feet per second, respectively. Flood elevations for each tributary were determined by application of a steady-state, one-dimensional flow model. Manning's roughness coefficients for...
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Estimates of nonpoint and point sources of nitrogen were made for 107 watersheds located in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program study units throughout the conterminous United States. The proportions of nitrogen originating from fertilizer, manure, atmospheric deposition, sewage, and industrial sources were found to vary with climate, hydrologic conditions, land use, population, and physiography. Fertilizer sources of nitrogen are proportionally greater in agricultural areas of the West and the Midwest than in other parts of the Nation. Animal manure contributes large proportions of nitrogen in the South and parts of the Northeast. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen is generally...
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Thick unsaturated zones in arid regions increasingly are being sought for the burial of radioactive and other hazardous wastes. Estimating percolation rates of water from precipitation at proposed burial sites is important for site assessment. Chloride profiles in unsaturated sediments are used to show differences and similarities in the rates of percolation at two sites in the Mojave Desert of southern Nevada and southeastern California; the first is an existing burial site for low-level radioactive waste in the Amargosa Desert, and the second is a proposed waste-burial site in Ward Valley. The Mojave Desert is one of the most arid regions of the United States.Chloride concentrations in pore water of unsaturated...
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The US. Geological Survey operates a quality- assurance program based on the analyses of reference samples for the National Water Quality Laboratory in Arvada, Colorado, and the Quality of Water Service Unit in Ocala, Florida. Reference samples containing selected inorganic, nutrient, and low ionic-strength constituents are prepared and disguised as routine samples. The program goal is to determine precision and bias for as many analytical methods offered by the participating laboratories as possible. The samples typically are submitted at a rate of approximately 5 percent of the annual environmental sample load for each constituent. The samples are distributed to the laboratories throughout the year. Analytical...