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Samples of water, bed material, fish, and soil were collected in four small drainage basins in Pennsylvania in 1969-71 and analyzed to determine the concentrations of chlorinated-hydrocarbon insecticides. Water samples only were also analyzed for phenoxy-acid herbicides. Each basin studied represents a predominant land-use classification—forested, general farming, residential, and orchard farming. All water and fish samples showed pesticide concentrations less than the U.S. Public Health Service's (1969) recommended maximum permissible concentration. However, no fish were found in the orchard area stream at the time collection was attempted. DOT or one of its metabolites was the most frequently occurring insecticide...
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The Grand Portage Indian Reservation Tribal Council needs information about the availability and quality of the ground water in the Reservation to develop, protect, and manage this resource for future use. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Grand Portage Indian Reservation Tribal Council, did a three-year study of the ground water in the Reservation to provide this needed information. This report presents the results of that study. Presently, ground water from bedrock is the principal source of supply for municipal, commercial, and residential water use. The bedrock aquifers are the (1) North Shore Volcanic Group basalt, (2) Keweenawan Volcanic and intrusive rocks, which are gabbro and diabase,...
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A water-level map of the Sparta and Memphis aquifers for 1993 is presented in this map report. The Sparta-Memphis aquifer, consisting of sands of Eocene age, is present in much of southern and eastern Arkansas. The potentiometric surface map and long-term hydrographs illustrate the effects of large withdrawals for industrial and public supply and, to a lesser extent, agricultural use, on water levels in the aquifer. Three cones of depression, centered in Columbia, Jefferson, and Union Counties, occur in the potentiometric surface.
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The Red River-Winnipeg aquifer of Ordovician age occupies a depression in the Proterozoic crystalline bedrock of northwestern Minnesota. The Winnipeg Formation, which underlies the Red River Formation, consists of two units: A lower shaley mudstone and an upper medium-grained sandstone. The Red River Formation consists of a lower dolomitic, dark-gray limestone and upper, slightly less-dolomitic, limestone. A porous zone at the top of the upper limestone yields most of the water to wells in the Red River-Winnipeg aquifer. Ground water generally flows eastward through the aquifer from North Dakota and discharges upward to wells and to overlying deposits. Yields of wells open to the full thickness of the aquifer range...
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Test drilling near two sewage lagoons in The Basin area of the Chisos Mountains, Big Bend National Park, Texas, has shown that the alluvium and colluvium on which the lagoons are located is not saturated in the immediate vicinity of the lagoons. A shallow aquifer, therefore, does not exist in this critical area at and near the lagoons. Should seepage outflow from the lagoons occur, the effluent from the lagoons might eventually be incorporated into shallow ground water moving westward in the direction of Oak Spring. Under these conditions such water could reach the spring. Test borings that bottomed in bedrock below the alluvial and colluvial fill material are dry, indicating that no substantial leakage from the...
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St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge is managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The refuge was acquired in 1968 from a private land owner and occupies all of St. Vincent Island, a barrier island located off the southern coast of the Florida Panhandle near Apalachicola (fig. 1). The island, which covers 12,358 acres, is about 9 miles long and 4 miles across at its widest point. Eighty miles of unpaved roads that grid the island are presently used for refuge management, law enforcement, and visitor hiking trails.Prior to becoming a refuge, the natural flow of surface water on the island was altered by road and ditch construction that enabled timbering of pine. Restoring the natural flow of surface water...
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An investigation of water quality in the industrialized French Broad River basin of western North Carolina has identified water-quality variations, the extent of man's influence on water quality, and trends in changes in the chemical quality of the river. The study centered on data collected during 1958-77 at the U.S. Geological Survey's station at Marshall, N.C. The French Broad is a clean river. Only occasionally have concentrations of some trace metals been observed to exceed drinking water standards. However, 58 percent of samples analyzed for fecal coliform bacteria during 1974-77 exceeded criteria levels for bathing waters. Most water-quality variations are associated with variations in streamflow. Concentrations...
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Rapid population growth in southeastern Pennsylvania has increased the demand for ground water. In an effort to address the increased ground-water needs, a ground-water investigation in a 5,200-square-mile area of southeastern Pennsylvania was initiated. Information on the geohydrologic system of the area and the water-bearing capabilities of 51 geohydrologic units in six physiographic provinces or sections (Coastal Plain, Piedmont Upland, Piedmont Lowland, Gettysburg-Newark Lowland, South Mountain, and Reading Prong) has been summarized. Also included are statistical summaries by geohydrologic unit for well construction and discharge data (according to water use), as well as inorganic and radiochemical ground-water-quality...
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Water-quality reconnaissance by the U.S. Geological Survey and Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, to evaluate the status of Ohio's lakes and reservoirs was begun in 1975 with studies of 17 lakes. Spring and summer data collections for each lake included: profile measurements of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance; field and laboratory analyses of physical, biological, chemical organic characteristics; (nutrient), and concentrations of major and minor chemical constituents from composites of the water column; and physical and chemical data from major inflows.Light penetration (secchi disk) ranged from 9.4 feet (2.9 meters) in Lake Hope to 0.4 feet (0.1 meter) in Acton Lake. Seasonal thermal...
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This report documents results of a cost-effectiveness study of the stream-gaging program In North Dakota. It is part of a nationwide evaluation of the stream-gaging program of the U.S. Geological Survey.One phase of evaluating cost effectiveness is to identify less costly alternative methods of simulating streamflow records. Statistical or hydro logic flow-routing methods were used as alternative methods to simulate streamflow records for 21 combinations of gaging stations from the 94-gaging-station network. Accuracy of the alternative methods was sufficient to consider discontinuing only one gaging station.Operation of the gaging-station network was evaluated by using associated uncertainty in streamflow records....
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Four laboratories involved in the routine analysis of wet-deposition samples participated in an interlaboratory comparison program managed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The four participants were: Illinois State Water Survey central analytical laboratory in Champaign, Illinois; U.S. Geological Survey national water-quality laboratories in Atlanta, Georgia, and Denver, Colorado; and Inland Waters Directorate national water-quality laboratory in Burlington, Ontario, Canada. Analyses of interlaboratory samples performed by the four laboratories from October 1983 through December 1984 were compared.Participating laboratories analyzed three types of interlaboratory samples--natural wet deposition, simulated wet deposition,...
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Urban land use and water use in the Antelope Valley, California, have increased significantly since development of the valley began in the late 1800's.. Ground water has been a major source of water in this area because of limited local surface-water resources. Ground-water pumpage is reported to have increased from about 29,000 acre-feet in 1919 to about 400,000 acre-feet in the 1950's. Completion of the California Aqueduct to this area in the early 1970's conveyed water from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, about 400 miles to the north. Declines in groundwater levels and increased costs of electrical power in the 1970's resulted in a reduction in the quantity of ground water that was pumped annually for irrigation...
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Streamflow and water-quality data were collected at nine sites in the city of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, during 1993–97. Six of the basins drained areas having relatively homogeneous land use and were less than 0.3 square mile in size; the other three basins had mixed land use. Atmospheric wet-deposition data were collected in three of the basins during 1997–98.Streamflow yield varied by a factor of six among the sites, despite the fact that sites were in close proximity to one another. The lowest yield occurred in a residential basin having no curbs and gutters. The variability in mean flow from these small, relatively homogeneous basins is much greater than is found in streams draining basins...
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Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of Pueblo Reservoir are described on the basis of data collected from spring 1985 through fall 1989. Also included are discussions of water quality of the upper Arkansas River Basin and the reservoir as they relate to reservoir operations. Pueblo Reservoir is a multipurpose, main-stem reservoir on the Arkansas River about 6 miles west of Pueblo, Colorado. At the top of its conservation pool, the reservoir is more than 9 miles long and ranges in depth from a few feet at the inflow to about 155 feet at the dam. Pueblo Reservoir derives most of its contents from the Arkansas River, which comprises native and transmountain flow. With respect to water temperature, the...
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The Paleocene Harmon lignite, the principal commercial bed of the Wihaux-Beach deposit, underlies at least 150 square miles along the Montana-North Dakota border. An estimated 1 billion tons of strippable reserves underlies about 50 square miles. The Harmon lignite bed also is the most consistently occurring shallow aquifer in the area. This study was conducted to determine possible impacts of surface mining on the area's water resources.Two aquifer systems, the lower Tongue River and the upper Ludlow, were identified within about 300 feet below the Harmon lignite aquifer, but none were identified within the overlying 350 feet. The aquifers (systems) are separated by varying thicknesses of interbedded clay and silt....