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The West Branch Susquehanna River basin has a drainage area of 6,955 square miles in north-central Pennsylvania and comprises Hydrologic Accounting Unit 020502. A National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) waterquality data collection site, maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey, is located on the river near its mouth at Lewisburg, Pennsylvania. Water-quality data are collected at numerous other sites throughout the basin by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources, Bureau of Water Quality Management. Data collected from the NASQAN site and the sites operated by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources from 1962 to 1982 were used to evaluate water-quality variability in the...
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Bydrologic data were collected for the proposed Quitchupah and Pines coal-lease tracts in Sevier and Bnery Counties, Utah, in order to describe the hydrology and potential effects of mining on the hydrologic system. The Quitchupah and Pines coal-lease tracts are near the Southern Utah Fuel Company coal mine in an area of the central Wasatch Plateau that is characterized by a relatively flat plateau deeply dissected by steep-sided canyons.Surface water in the Quitchupah and Pines study area drains to two perennial streams, Muddy Creek to the north and Quitchupah Creek to the south. Peak streamflow is usually in May and June in response to snowmelt runoff; however, thunderstorms can cause short-term high flows in...
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Samples of water, bed material, fish, and soil were collected in four small drainage basins in Pennsylvania in 1969-71 and analyzed to determine the concentrations of chlorinated-hydrocarbon insecticides. Water samples only were also analyzed for phenoxy-acid herbicides. Each basin studied represents a predominant land-use classification—forested, general farming, residential, and orchard farming. All water and fish samples showed pesticide concentrations less than the U.S. Public Health Service's (1969) recommended maximum permissible concentration. However, no fish were found in the orchard area stream at the time collection was attempted. DOT or one of its metabolites was the most frequently occurring insecticide...
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An investigation of water quality in the industrialized French Broad River basin of western North Carolina has identified water-quality variations, the extent of man's influence on water quality, and trends in changes in the chemical quality of the river. The study centered on data collected during 1958-77 at the U.S. Geological Survey's station at Marshall, N.C. The French Broad is a clean river. Only occasionally have concentrations of some trace metals been observed to exceed drinking water standards. However, 58 percent of samples analyzed for fecal coliform bacteria during 1974-77 exceeded criteria levels for bathing waters. Most water-quality variations are associated with variations in streamflow. Concentrations...
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Regional relations are defined for estimating the depths of floods having recurrence intervals ranging from 2 to 100 years for both natural and urban streams in Oklahoma. Contributing drainage area and the 2-year 24-hour rainfall are the only independent variables required for estimating flood depths for natural streams. For urban streams the percentage of the basin impervious and served by storm sewers is also required. The only limitations are that the stream be unregulated, that the main channels be unimproved, and that the contributing drainage area and the 2-year 24-hour rainfall be in the range of values used to derive the relations. The standard errors of estimate range from 24 percent for the 50- and 100-year...
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The Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) Corridor Study is a three-phase project designed to improve the understanding of water resources in the stream corridors of the MMSD planning area by initially compiling existing data and using the compiled information to develop 3-year baseline and long-term monitoring plans. This report is one of the products of Phase I of the Corridor Study. A literature review of surface-water-quality, surface water- quantity, and ecology studies conducted from 1970 through 2001 was completed and is summarized in this report. An inventory of Geographic Information System spatial coverages available for the MMSD planning area has been assembled. A database of water, sediment,...
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Rapid population growth in southeastern Pennsylvania has increased the demand for ground water. In an effort to address the increased ground-water needs, a ground-water investigation in a 5,200-square-mile area of southeastern Pennsylvania was initiated. Information on the geohydrologic system of the area and the water-bearing capabilities of 51 geohydrologic units in six physiographic provinces or sections (Coastal Plain, Piedmont Upland, Piedmont Lowland, Gettysburg-Newark Lowland, South Mountain, and Reading Prong) has been summarized. Also included are statistical summaries by geohydrologic unit for well construction and discharge data (according to water use), as well as inorganic and radiochemical ground-water-quality...
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St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge is managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The refuge was acquired in 1968 from a private land owner and occupies all of St. Vincent Island, a barrier island located off the southern coast of the Florida Panhandle near Apalachicola (fig. 1). The island, which covers 12,358 acres, is about 9 miles long and 4 miles across at its widest point. Eighty miles of unpaved roads that grid the island are presently used for refuge management, law enforcement, and visitor hiking trails.Prior to becoming a refuge, the natural flow of surface water on the island was altered by road and ditch construction that enabled timbering of pine. Restoring the natural flow of surface water...
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The Grand Portage Indian Reservation Tribal Council needs information about the availability and quality of the ground water in the Reservation to develop, protect, and manage this resource for future use. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Grand Portage Indian Reservation Tribal Council, did a three-year study of the ground water in the Reservation to provide this needed information. This report presents the results of that study. Presently, ground water from bedrock is the principal source of supply for municipal, commercial, and residential water use. The bedrock aquifers are the (1) North Shore Volcanic Group basalt, (2) Keweenawan Volcanic and intrusive rocks, which are gabbro and diabase,...
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This report documents results of a cost-effectiveness study of the stream-gaging program In North Dakota. It is part of a nationwide evaluation of the stream-gaging program of the U.S. Geological Survey.One phase of evaluating cost effectiveness is to identify less costly alternative methods of simulating streamflow records. Statistical or hydro logic flow-routing methods were used as alternative methods to simulate streamflow records for 21 combinations of gaging stations from the 94-gaging-station network. Accuracy of the alternative methods was sufficient to consider discontinuing only one gaging station.Operation of the gaging-station network was evaluated by using associated uncertainty in streamflow records....
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Four laboratories involved in the routine analysis of wet-deposition samples participated in an interlaboratory comparison program managed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The four participants were: Illinois State Water Survey central analytical laboratory in Champaign, Illinois; U.S. Geological Survey national water-quality laboratories in Atlanta, Georgia, and Denver, Colorado; and Inland Waters Directorate national water-quality laboratory in Burlington, Ontario, Canada. Analyses of interlaboratory samples performed by the four laboratories from October 1983 through December 1984 were compared.Participating laboratories analyzed three types of interlaboratory samples--natural wet deposition, simulated wet deposition,...
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Hydrologic Accounting Unit 120301 is located in north-central Texas and includes that part of the Trinity River basin upstream from the National Stream Quality Accounting Network station 08062700, Trinity River at Trinidad, Texas. Normal annual precipitation ranges from about 28 inches in the western part of the basin to almost 40 inches in the eastern part. The population of the upper Trinity River basin was nearly 3 million in 1980. Total water use in 1980 was approximately 826,000 acre-feet, of which 90 percent was obtained from surface-water resources. Mean discharges for most stations in the study area during the 1973-82 water years were significantly larger than mean discharges for the period of record. Mean...
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Most of the water needs of Tom Green County, Texas, are supplied by ground water; however, the city of San Angelo is supplied by surface water. Groundwater withdrawals during 1980 (latest year for which data are available) in Tom Green County totaled about 15,300 acre-feet, all derived from shallow aquifers. Shallow aquifers in this report refer to the ground-water system generally less than 400 feet deep that contains water with less than a 10,000 milligrams per liter concentration of dissolved solids; aquifers comprising this system include: The Leona, Comanche Peak, Trinity, Blaine, San Angelo, Choza, Bullwagon, Vale, Standpipe, and Arroyo aquifers. The current (1983) water levels in shallow aquifers in Tom Green...
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A 5-year, data-collection and modeling study was conducted on Pheasant Branch basin in and near Middleton, Wisconsin. The objectives of the study were to: (1) describe the streamflow characteristics, sediment transport, and stream-channel morphology in the Pheasant Branch basin; and (2) relate the above factors to changes caused by urbanization and project the effect of urbanization on the hydrology and channel morphology of the study area. Streamflow data were collected at five sites for 4 years in the basin to defme present streamflow conditions. Suspended-sediment data also were collected at these sites. In addition, periodic surveys of monumented channel cross sections were made and compared with a survey...
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The Apostle Islands National Lakeshore consists of 21 islands, part of the Bayfield Peninsula, and the adjacent waters of Lake Superior. Selected water resources of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore were assessed to aid the National Park Service in developing and managing the Lakeshore and to provide a data base against which future changes can be compared. This summary of water-resources data, collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1979-84, provides a qualitative description of selected hydrologic components of the Lakeshore. Streamflow in the Lakeshore area is characterized by typical seasonal fluctuations. Flow in Sand River at State Highway 13 ranged from 3.9 to 1,630 cubic feet per second. The...
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The Galena-Platteville bedrock unit is a carbonate deposit of Ordovician age, composed of the Galena and Platteville Groups in Illinois and the Sinnippee Group in Wisconsin. It is the uppermost bedrock unit (subcrop) in most of northern Illinois and southern and eastern Wisconsin. The subcrop area is shaded in figure 1 of sheet 1 (Batten and others, 1997). The unit is predominately dolomite, with limestone in some areas, and has a weathered surface. Across the subcrop area, the hydrologic characteristics of the bedrock unit vary substantially. The bedrock unit may be either a confining unit or an aquifer. In areas where the Galena-Platteville bedrock unit is an aquifer, the unit is a dependable source of water for...
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An automatic system was designed to concurrently measure stage and discharge for the purpose of developing stage-discharge ratings and high flow hydrographs on small streams. Stage, or gage height, is recorded by an analog-to-digital recorder and discharge is determined by the constant-rate tracer-dilution method The system measures flow above a base stage set by the user. To test the effectiveness of the system and its components, eight systems, with a variety of equipment, were installed at crest-stage gaging stations across Iowa A fluorescent dye, rhodamine-WT, was used as the tracer. Tracer-dilution discharge measurements were made during 14 flow periods at six stations from 1986 through 1988 water years. Ratings...
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Flooding and high ground-water levels after large or frequent rainstorms have occurred in an area of about 30 square miles along the eastern bank of the Cedar River from Cedar Falls in northwest Black Hawk County to Janesville in southwest Bremer County, Iowa. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Black Hawk County, conducted a hydrologic study of the Cedar River alluvium in the northwest Black Hawk and southwest Bremer Counties, to improve understanding of the ground-water flow system and evaluate the effects of hypothetical variations in recharge and discharge conditions. A steady-state ground-water flow model was constructed for the area using November 2001 hydrologic conditions. The model was discretized...
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The Raystown Branch Juniata River watershed, which is the main water source for Raystown Lake, is a 960-square-mile (2,490 square kilometres) drainage basin in south-central Pennsylvania. Preimpoundment water-quality data were collected on the Raystown Branch and six tributary st.reams in the basin. Specific conductance values varied inversely with water discharge. The pH values were extremely low only at the Shoup Run site. Dissolved oxygen concentrations observed at all sites indicated a relatively high oxygen saturation level throughout the year. Seasonal variations in nitrate-N and orthophosphate-P levels were measured at the main inflow station at Saxton, Pa. The highest concentrations of nitrate-N and orthophosphate-P...
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Upper Klamath Lake and the connecting Agency Lake constitute a large, shallow lake in south-central Oregon that the historical record indicates has likely been eutrophic since its discovery by non-Native Americans. In recent decades, however, the lake has had annual occurrences of near-monoculture blooms of the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae that are thought to be a result of accelerated eutrophication. In 1988, two sucker species endemic to the lake, the Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus) and the shortnose sucker (Chasmistes brevirostris), were listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and it has been proposed that their decline is due to the poor water quality associated with extremely...