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Gasification of German oil shale and coal using concentrated solar energy as a heat source is studied in a fixed bed reactor under an argon atmosphere. The reactor allows direct absorption of irradiation resulting in high rates of temperature increase and hence in simultaneous decomposition of organic matter and carbonates present in the shale. Synthesis gases are produced consisting of H2, CO, CH4, and CO2. Basic considerations on stoichiometrics of shale gasification are presented. A macrokinetic modeling of the shale reaction rate based on conversion is established and verified experimentally. Further experiments are carried out with different irradiation times, shale-particle sizes, gasification temperatures...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Arizona, Solar, Workforce
The direct conversion of solar energy to electricity by photovoltaic cells or thermal energy in concentrated solar power systems is emerging as a leading contender for next-generation green power production. The photovoltaics (PV) area is rapidly evolving based on new materials and deposition approaches. At present, PV is predominately based on crystalline and polycrystalline Si and is growing at >40% per year with production rapidly approaching 3 gigawatts/year with PV installations supplying <1% of energy used in the world. Increased cell efficiency and reduced manufacturing expenses are critical in achieving reasonable costs for PV and solarthermal. CdTe thin-film solar cells have reported a manufactured cost...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Arizona, Solar, Workforce
Like many other sub-tropical deserts in the world, the southwestern U.S. has high rates of solar insolation. However, meaningful development there, especially in solar-rich Arizona, has been slow. This article addresses why this is so by concentrating on one critical contributor to success--workforce development. To identify shortcomings and needed changes, we used a survey of the significant solar firms operating in Arizona to ask three questions: Does a gap exist between existing and desired levels of solar engineering education and training? What skills should new graduates possess when entering the solar energy workforce? What course of study is considered important in the education of solar energy employees?...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Arizona, Solar, Workforce