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This data table contains mean decomposition rates and mean carbon:nitrogen ratios for different litter types buried in 7 marshes during 2015. Note that C:N data are repeated for low and high marsh areas at each site in the table. These data support the following publication: Janousek, C.N., Buffington, K.J., Guntenspergen, G.R. et al. Ecosystems (2017). doi:10.1007/s10021-017-0111-6. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10021-017-0111-6
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This data set contains decomposition rates for litter of Salicornia pacifica, Distichlis spicata, and Deschampsia cespitosa buried at 7 tidal marsh sites in 2015. Sediment organic matter values were collected at a subset of sites. These data support the following publication: Janousek, C.N., Buffington, K.J., Guntenspergen, G.R. et al. Ecosystems (2017). doi:10.1007/s10021-017-0111-6. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10021-017-0111-6
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These data were compiled to improve our understanding of how water, carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) interact to regulate below ground carbon cycling. Objective(s) of our study were to evaluate how soil heterotrophic carbon cycling responded to inputs of water, C, N, and P individually and interactively on the Colorado Plateau. These data represent soil microbial and CO2 respiration responses to amendments of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and water. Soils were collected at a study site located in Arches National Park in southeastern Utah on 14 August 2017 and again on 17 July 2018 from the upper 10 cm of the soil profile in open spaces among plant canopies after the biological soil crust layer (< 1...
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Natural cave passages penetrating a coastal aquifer in the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico) were accessed to test the hypothesis that chemoclines associated with salinity gradients (haloclines) within the flooded cave networks of the karst subterranean estuary are sites of methane oxidation. Two field trips were carried out to the fully-submerged cave system located 6.6 km inland from the coastline in January 2015 and January 2016. Vertical chemical profiles across the water column haloclines were obtained using the OctoPiPi (OPP), a high-resolution water sampler built by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The sampling efforts resulted in cm-scale profiles of major ions (e.g., chloride and sulfate), as well as concentrations...
Increases in the abundance or density of woody plants in historically semiarid and arid grassland ecosystems have important ecological, hydrological, and socioeconomic implications. Using a simplified water-balance model, we propose a framework for conceptualizing how woody plant encroachment is likely to affect components of the water cycle within these ecosystems. We focus in particular on streamflow and the partitioning of evapotranspiration into evaporation and transpiration. On the basis of this framework, we suggest that streamflow and evaporation processes are affected by woody plant encroachment in different ways, depending on the degree and seasonality of aridity and the availability of subsurface water....
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This data table contains results for the 2014 mesocosm tests of inundation effects on decomposition. These data support the following publication: Janousek, C.N., Buffington, K.J., Guntenspergen, G.R. et al. Ecosystems (2017). doi:10.1007/s10021-017-0111-6. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10021-017-0111-6
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These datasets are from an incubation experiment with a combination of two minerals (feldspar or amorphous aluminum hydroxide), one living species of bacteria (Escherichia coli), and one added form of C (Arthrobacter crystallopoietes necromass). We characterized the sorptive properties of the minerals with batch sorption experiments using four low molecular weight C substrates (glucose, oxalic acid, glutamic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid): this data is provided in the SterileSorptionData file. We then conducted a 3-wk long incubation in serum vials or imaging chambers. In both incubations, feldspar (200 mg) or amorphous aluminum hydroxide (100 mg) was given 1 of 4 different treatments: (1) a water control with autoclaved...
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The data herein report continuous field measurements and specific discrete sampling events associated with water quality and carbon consitutents – both dissolved and particulate forms. These data were coupled with atmospheric flux measurements during the 2017-18 water year to estimate the net storage of fixed carbon within the marsh on an areal basis. Direct and indirect measurement showed 47 to 59% of fixed carbon is stored on site, and most loss is through dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) export. Comparing this with other tidal wetlands in the U.S. showed similar rates of loss, and a global meta-analysis showed that lateral loss is a proportionally larger term in coastal wetland carbon budgets, relative to other...
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Re-vegetation of mining wastes is difficult due to the inhospitable conditions for plant growth. Our aim was to determine whether the combined addition of municipal waste compost and plant growth promoting endophytes (i.e., microorganisms that live within plants) could improve plant growth, organic matter accumulation, and phytostabilization of metal contaminants across multiple types of hard rock mine waste. We grew a widespread perennial grass, Bouteloua curtipendula, for 45 days in tailings (Ag-Pb-Au mine) and waste rock (porphyry copper mine) sourced from southeastern Arizona, USA. We quantified organic matter accumulation, microbial biomass, plant growth rates, biomass yields, plant metal concentrations, and...
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This data table contains summary data for temperature time series in near-surface sediments in high and low tidal marsh at 7 sites during 2015. These data support the following publication: Janousek, C.N., Buffington, K.J., Guntenspergen, G.R. et al. Ecosystems (2017). doi:10.1007/s10021-017-0111-6. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10021-017-0111-6
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This table contains data on dry mass remaining in a subset of Salicornia pacifica and Deschampsia cespitosa litter bags removed over a series of time points spanning 6 months. These data support the following publication: Janousek, C.N., Buffington, K.J., Guntenspergen, G.R. et al. Ecosystems (2017). doi:10.1007/s10021-017-0111-6. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10021-017-0111-6
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This dataset contains stable isotope (δ13C) and radioisotope (Δ14C) compositions of dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, particulate organic carbon, and bed material organic carbon samples collected from rivers in the Upper Mississippi River Basin between October 2014 and February 2016. Rivers were sampled at USGS gaging stations: Minnesota River at Fort Snelling State Park, MN (gage #05330920), Mississippi River at Hwy 610 in Brooklyn Park, MN (gage #05288500), St. Croix River at Prescott, WI (gage #05344490), Mississippi River at Prescott, WI (gage #05344500), and Chippewa River at Durand, WI (gage #05369500). One site was also sampled at a location that is not co-located with a gaging station:...
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Bacterial Data include results of incubations of lakewater bacteria with dissolved organic matter extracted from Colorado glacier or rock glacier outflows in 2015. Cells were counted pre- and post- incubations. The “Counts” tab is the number of cells counted in each view of the microscope using the acridine orange method. “C Calculations” tab is the calculation of carbon as bacterial biomass from cell counts. ”Change in cell counts” is the difference in the number of bacterial cells from the pre-incubation microbial culture and in each assay bottle after the biological oxygen demand incubation. The third tab, “Carbon use efficiency” is calculated as the amount of DOM from oxygen demand assays converted to microbial...
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Note: This data release has been deprecated. Please see new data release here: https://doi.org/10.5066/P9A4FVZ4. The data presented here was collected adjacent to USGS stream gage 06730200 and includes both observed and modeled values. Dissolved oxygen, dissolved carbon dioxide, stream depth, water temperature, and light intensity were collected via passive water quality sensors. Modeled values include gross primary production, ecosystem respiration, net ecosystem production, reaeration, and light (when observed values were unavailable). Modeled values were obtained through streamMetabolizer, a USGS-sponsored R-package for estimating rates of stream metabolism. Estimates for carbon dioxide flux utilized both modeled...
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Phytostabilization reduces the mobility of inorganic contaminants by establishing or enhancing plant growth. For small, remote, or abandoned mines, phytostabilization may reduce potential environmental hazards—provided plants can establish and grow. We grew a widespread perennial grass, Bouteloua curtipendula, in mining wastes with and without soil (compost, lime) and microbial amendments (endophyte seed coats) to determine whether we could improve plant establishment and growth. This data collection has four associated data releases: the physical elemental, and geochemical characteristics of the mining wastes and soil amendments; the laboratory environmental conditions during the growth of Bouteloua curtipendula...
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In this study, we determined the carbon balance in the Great Dismal Swamp, a large forested peatland in the southeastern USA, which has been drained for over two hundred years and now is being restored through hydrologic management. We modeled future net ecosystem carbon balance over 100 years (2012 to 2112) using in situ field observations paired with simulations of water-table depth. The three scenarios used in the model were baseline conditions, flooded/wet conditions, and drained/dry conditions, which represent a range of potential management actions and climate conditions at the Great Dismal Swamp. This U.S. Geological Survey Data Release provides the modeled output estimating the net ecosystem carbon balance,...
Microbiotic crusts are biological soil crusts composed of lichens, cyanobacteria, algae, mosses, and fungi. The biodiversity of these crusts is poorly understood; several cosmopolitan species dominate in most areas, but many species are confined to one or a few sites. Nitrogen fixation by organisms within the crust can be the dominant source of nitrogen input into many ecosystems, although rates of nitrogen input are limited by water availability, temperature, and nitrogen loss from the crust. Photosynthetic rates of the microbiotic crust can be 50% of those observed for higher plants, but the contribution of crusts to carbon cycling is not known. The microbiotic crust binds soil particles together, and this significantly...
Scientific research on the global carbon cycle has emerged as a high priority in biogeochemistry, climate studies, and global change policy. The emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel combustion is a dominant driver of the current net carbon fluxes between the land, the oceans, and the atmosphere, and it is a key contributor to the rise in modern radiative forcing. Contrary to a commonly held perception, our quantitative knowledge about these emissions is insufficient to satisfy current scientific and policy needs. A more highly spatially and temporally resolved quantification of the social and economic drivers of fossil fuel combustion, and the resulting CO2 emissions, is essential to supporting scientific...
Microbiotic crusts are biological soil crusts composed of lichens, cyanobacteria, algae, mosses, and fungi. The biodiversity of these crusts is poorly understood; several cosmopolitan species dominate in most areas, but many species are confined to one or a few sites. Nitrogen fixation by organisms within the crust can be the dominant source of nitrogen input into many ecosystems, although rates of nitrogen input are limited by water availability, temperature, and nitrogen loss from the crust. Photosynthetic rates of the microbiotic crust can be 50% of those observed for higher plants, but the contribution of crusts to carbon cycling is not known. The microbiotic crust binds soil particles together, and this significantly...
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Forest surveys were conducted in nine 20 m x 25 m study plots, split into 3 representatives each for three forest types in Great Dismal Swamp, VA and NC, USA, December 2015 - February 2018. Trees, saplings, and shrubs were identified to species and measured for estimates of standing stocks. Standing stock data include: tree diameter at breast height (dbh), height, and condition; sapling dbh; shrub diameter at root collar, and height. In each plot, roughly 10 co-dominant trees were equipped with dendrometer bands and measured annually for growth estimates.


map background search result map search result map Isotopic and chemical composition (δ13C, Δ14C, δ15N, C:N, SUVA254nm, % HPOA) of aquatic carbon and field conditions (water temperature, pH, discharge) in the Upper Mississippi River Basin, October 2014 – February 2016 Inundation Experiments, 2014 Decomposition rates and carbon:nitrogen ratios for different litter types, 2015 Litter Decomposition Rates, 2015 Sediment Temperature, 2015 Linear loss of litter over time, 2015 Forest community biomass and growth in Great Dismal Swamp, Virginia and North Carolina, USA Laboratory Incubation results from 2015 for bacterial cell counts, carbon use efficiency, growth efficiency, and dissolved organic matter chemistry from four glacier outflows and four rock glacier outflows in Colorado Vertical chemical profiles collected across haloclines in the water column of the Ox Bel Ha cave network within the coastal aquifer of the Yucatan Peninsula in January 2015 and January 2016 Tidal hydrologic and constitutent loads from First Mallard Water Quality Station in the Rush Ranch Marsh Complex of the San Francisco Bay Estuarine Research Reserve (SFBNERR) 2016-2018 Modeled Stream Metabolism in Boulder Creek near Boulder, CO (2016 - 2018) Model parameters and output of net ecosystem carbon balance for the Great Dismal Swamp, Virginia and North Carolina, USA Grass Growth in Mining Wastes with Compost and Endophyte Additions Quantification of Bouteloua curtipendula biomass, organic matter accumulation, and geochemical changes during growth in mining wastes CO2 concentrations and microbial biomass data derived from incubation experiments on soils collected at Arches National Park in 2017 and 2018 Modeled Stream Metabolism in Boulder Creek near Boulder, CO (2016 - 2018) Tidal hydrologic and constitutent loads from First Mallard Water Quality Station in the Rush Ranch Marsh Complex of the San Francisco Bay Estuarine Research Reserve (SFBNERR) 2016-2018 Vertical chemical profiles collected across haloclines in the water column of the Ox Bel Ha cave network within the coastal aquifer of the Yucatan Peninsula in January 2015 and January 2016 CO2 concentrations and microbial biomass data derived from incubation experiments on soils collected at Arches National Park in 2017 and 2018 Forest community biomass and growth in Great Dismal Swamp, Virginia and North Carolina, USA Model parameters and output of net ecosystem carbon balance for the Great Dismal Swamp, Virginia and North Carolina, USA Laboratory Incubation results from 2015 for bacterial cell counts, carbon use efficiency, growth efficiency, and dissolved organic matter chemistry from four glacier outflows and four rock glacier outflows in Colorado Isotopic and chemical composition (δ13C, Δ14C, δ15N, C:N, SUVA254nm, % HPOA) of aquatic carbon and field conditions (water temperature, pH, discharge) in the Upper Mississippi River Basin, October 2014 – February 2016 Inundation Experiments, 2014 Decomposition rates and carbon:nitrogen ratios for different litter types, 2015 Litter Decomposition Rates, 2015 Sediment Temperature, 2015 Linear loss of litter over time, 2015