Skip to main content
USGS - science for a changing world
Advanced Search

Filters: Tags: economic (X)

107 results (26ms)   

Filters
Date Range
Extensions
Types
Contacts
Categories
Tag Types
Tag Schemes
View Results as: JSON ATOM CSV
The paper traces the manner in which an obligation came to be imposed on select industries, requiring them to take account of amenity, wildlife and outdoor-recreational interests in the course of preparing and carrying out developmental schemes. Under pressure from the relevant voluntary bodies, the statutory obligations, first imposed on hydro-electric power development, were generalized to cover 'whole' industries, and then, under the Countryside Acts of 1967-68, were extended to all State utilities. The recent privatization of those industries has provided a further pretext for extending and strengthening the 'amenity' clause. The approach has provided important insights into how industry itself might become...
Energy autarky is presented as a conceptual framework for implementing sustainable regional development based on the transformation of the energy subsystem. It is conceptualized as a situation in which the energy services used for sustaining local consumption, local production and the export of goods and services are derived from locally renewable energy resources. Technically, the implementation of higher degrees of energy autarky rests on increasing energy efficiency, realizing the potential of renewable energy resources and relying on a decentralized energy system. Practically, a transition towards regional energy autarky requires administrations and civil society actors to initialize and develop projects at...
High-temporal resolution meteorological output from the Parallel Climate Model (PCM) is used to assess changes in wildland fire danger across the western United States due to climatic changes projected in the 21st century. A business-as-usual scenario incorporating changing greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations until the year 2089 is compared to a 1975 - 1996 base period. Changes in relative humidity, especially drying over much of the West, are projected to increase the number of days of high fire danger ( based on the energy release component (ERC) index) at least through the year 2089 in comparison to the base period. The regions most affected are the northern Rockies, Great Basin and the Southwest - regions...
The timely development of the nation's energy production capacity in a manner that minimizes potential adverse local and regional impacts associated with energy facilities requires the use of sophisticated techniques for evaluation of siting alternatives and fuel cycle options. This report is a documentation of the computerized SITE methodology that has been developed for evaluating health, environmental, and socioeconomic impacts related to utilization of alternate sites for energy production within a region of interest. The cost, impact, and attribute vectors, which are generated and displayed on density maps, can be used in a multiparameter overlay process to identify preferable siting areas. The assessment of...
Forests are important in the global carbon cycle, forming a major sink for carbon. Deforestation is a significant source of carbon dioxide emitted to the atmosphere. There is some scope to enhance natural carbon sinks, and therefore reduce net emissions of greenhouse gases, through afforestation and conservation of existing forests. Such initiatives may be implemented to "offset" emissions of greenhouse gases from other sources. This may be undertaken by private companies, or by governments as part of bilateral agreements or multilateral arrangements. International carbon offsets may be cost effective in terms of reduction of carbon emissions achieved, and may also be one way to mobilise private capital to fund...
Waste frying oils (WFO) can be a good source for the production of biodiesel because this raw material is not part of the food chain, is low cost and can be used in a way that resolves environmental problems (i.e. WFO is no longer thrown into the sewage network). The goal of this article is to propose a method to evaluate the costs of biodiesel production from WFO to develop an economic assessment of this alternative. This method embraces a logistics perspective, as the cost of collection of oil from commercial producers and its delivery to biodiesel depots or plants can be relevant and is an issue that has been little explored in the academic literature. To determine the logistics cost, a mathematical programming...
This study was conducted to evaluate the causality between energy consumption, GDP growth and carbon emissions for eight Asia-Pacific countries from 1971 to 2005 using the panel data. The results indicate that there are long-run equilibrium relationships between these variables. Additionally, causality from energy consumption to CO2 emissions was observed generally, but there were some opposite relationships also. Parameter estimations of the panel data model indicate that there are great differences in the carbon emissions, the efficiencies of energy use, carbon emissions of unit GDP and unit energy consumption between developed and developing countries. The base carbon emissions, per capita energy consumption...
A [`]discount rate' for the consumption of future generations from current investments for their benefit is typically composed of two parts: [`]time preference' and an allowance for the lower marginal utility of consumption due to higher average levels of consumption in the future. Time preference would be involved if one were postponing one's own consumption; it has little or nothing to do with income redistribution, which is what greenhouse abatement is about. A lower marginal utility of consumption is an anomaly in income redistribution: we rarely deliberately transfer consumption from the less to the more well-to-do. Time may serve as a kind of measure of distance; we may prefer beneficiaries who are closer...
thumbnail
A battery of questions was developed and applied to different stakeholders immersed in knowledge of the condition and the use of grazing of grasslands. One hundred people were surveyed amongst livestock producers (both from private ranches and from communal ejidos), and students and researchers at regional institutions involved in agricultural sciences in different states of Mexico: Coahuila, Durango, San Luis Potosí, and Jalisco. The objective of the survey was to determine aspects of stakeholders’ interpretation of the condition of grasslands in their region under conditions of extensive grazing, such as soil condition, harvest efficiency, vegetation condition, openness to community organizing of grazing, capacity...
One of the highest priorities in carbon sequestration science is the development of techniques for CO2 separation and capture, because it is expected to account for the majority of the total cost ( 75%). The most common currently used method of CO2 separation is reversible chemical absorption using monoethanolamine (MEA) solvent. In the current study, solvent degradation from this technique was studied using degraded MEA samples from the IMC Chemicals Facility in Trona, California. A major pathway to solvent degradation that had not been previously observed in laboratory experiments has been identified. This pathway, which is initiated by oxidation of the solvent, is a much more significant source of solvent degradation...
Transformational energy and climate policies are being debated worldwide that could have significant impact upon the future of the forest products industry. Because woody biomass can produce alternative transportation fuels, low-carbon electricity, and numerous other "green" products in addition to traditional paper and lumber commodities, the future use of forest resources is highly uncertain. Using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), this paper assesses the future of the forest products industry under three possible U.S. policy scenarios: (1) a national renewable electricity standard, (2) a national policy of carbon constraints, and (3) incentives for industrial energy efficiency. In addition, we discuss...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: demand, economic, response
High-temporal resolution meteorological output from the Parallel Climate Model (PCM) is used to assess changes in wildland fire danger across the western United States due to climatic changes projected in the 21st century. A business-as-usual scenario incorporating changing greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations until the year 2089 is compared to a 1975 - 1996 base period. Changes in relative humidity, especially drying over much of the West, are projected to increase the number of days of high fire danger ( based on the energy release component (ERC) index) at least through the year 2089 in comparison to the base period. The regions most affected are the northern Rockies, Great Basin and the Southwest - regions...
In this paper the case for subsidies for solar energy to counter inefficient pricing practices of electric utilities, hidden subsidies to non-solar fuels and tax law biases are examined. The conclusion reached for two of three regions in the USA in the case of solar energy replacing electricity for hot water heating is that, far from offsetting biases against solar energy, current subsidies reinforce pre-existing biases in favour of the use of solar energy systems.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Solar, economic, efficiency, subsidies
As policy makers consider strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, they need to understand the available options and the conditions under which these options become economically attractive. This paper explores the economics of carbon capture and sequestration technologies as applied to electric generating plants. The MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a general equilibrium model of the world economy, is used to model two of the most promising carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies. The CCS technologies are based on a natural gas combined cycle plant and an integrated coal gasification combined cycle plant. Additionally, the role of natural gas combined cycle plants without...
As policy makers consider strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, they need to understand the available options and the conditions under which these options become economically attractive. This paper explores the economics of carbon capture and sequestration technologies as applied to electric generating plants. The MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a general equilibrium model of the world economy, is used to model two of the most promising carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies. The CCS technologies are based on a natural gas combined cycle plant and an integrated coal gasification combined cycle plant. Additionally, the role of natural gas combined cycle plants without...
This project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using geothermal effluents for developing and maintaining waterfowl wetlands. Information in the document pertains to a seven State area the West where geothermal resources have development potential. Information is included on physiochemical characteristics of geothermal effluents; known effects of constituents in the water on a wetland ecosystem and water quality criteria for maintaining a viable wetland; potential of sites for wetland development and disposal of effluent water from geothermal facilities; methods of ‘disposal of effluents, including advantages of each method and associated costs; legal and Institutional constraints which could affect geothermal...
It is widely recognised that access to and supply of modern energy play a key role in poverty alleviation and sustainable development.The emerging concept of energisation seems to capture this idea, and if implemented in its full complexity it should have multiple beneficial effects. To demonstrate this, an economic model is developed for an urban developmental context, drawing on the theory of urban ecosystems and illustrating energy and waste production and consumption issues with current South African data sets. This new understanding of the concept of energisation is then integrated into a local government energy planning process, by means of a checklist for energy planners, covering 18 aspects that between...
It is widely recognised that access to and supply of modern energy play a key role in poverty alleviation and sustainable development.The emerging concept of energisation seems to capture this idea, and if implemented in its full complexity it should have multiple beneficial effects. To demonstrate this, an economic model is developed for an urban developmental context, drawing on the theory of urban ecosystems and illustrating energy and waste production and consumption issues with current South African data sets. This new understanding of the concept of energisation is then integrated into a local government energy planning process, by means of a checklist for energy planners, covering 18 aspects that between...
This paper approximates the emissions rebound effects' associated with substituting expensive and GHG emitting natural gas (LNG) power plants, with apparently cheaper and lower emitting nuclear plant. It then evaluates the effect this has on economy wide electricity use as well as net GHG emissions changes. The analysis is undertaken by combining aspects of an input-output model with an optimizing energy systems model. The scope of the case study is limited to the effects of the electricity sector (and its emissions) on the Korean economy from 2005 to 2030. Its primary basis (in terms of data and assumptions) is the recent national Basic Plan for Long-Term Electricity Supply and Demand (KPX, 2006).(2) The cases...
thumbnail
Information about economic activity was obtained from the National Cohesive Wildland Fire Management Strategy (cohesivefire.nemac.org). Data were derived from the USDA Economic Research Service to create a county-level measure of Dominant Economic Activity (county economic dependence). This describes the most prevalent kind of economic activity, which includes activities from farming, mining, and manufacturing to government employment and the service industry. The Appalachian economy is diverse and geographically variable; for example, manufacturing is spread throughout the region, whereas mining activities are located more centrally. Data are from 2004.The mission of the USDA Economic Research Service is to inform...


map background search result map search result map Perceptions of the condition of semiarid grasslands under grazing regimes in Mexico/ Percepción de la condición del pastizal  bajo pastoreo, en México semiárido Dominant Economic Activity USDA Economic Research Service Perceptions of the condition of semiarid grasslands under grazing regimes in Mexico/ Percepción de la condición del pastizal  bajo pastoreo, en México semiárido Dominant Economic Activity USDA Economic Research Service