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Hydraulic fracturing tests with mud is the most inexpensive method for determining the minor in situ horizontal stress in deep petroleum wells. This paper presents a unified model of pump-in=shut-in and pump-in=flowback tests. The key element of the model is the system stiffness resulting from the stiffness of the fluid volume pressurised, and the stiffness due to the fracture. It is shown that the change in system stiffness at fracture closure is observed in both kinds of tests. The model is used directly in the design and interpretation of the flowback tests, where direct measurement of pressure versus flowback volume, and hence system stiffness is possible. However, the model also predicts the time development...
As part of its commitments to the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), the State of Maryland, USA, auctions emission permits to electric utilities, creating revenue that can be used to benefit consumers and the environment. This paper explores the CO2 emissions reductions that may be possible by allocating some of that revenue to foster efficiency improvements in the residential sector's use of natural gas. Since these improvements will require changes to the capital stock of houses and end use equipment, efficiency improvements may be accompanied by economic and ancillary health impacts, both of which are quantified in this paper.