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Assessment of effect of altered stream flow characteristics on fish and wildlife : pt. B, California : final report
Top-down and bottom-up modelling techniques have been used to answer the question of how much would it cost to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These two types of models, however, were conceived and designed through different disciplines, for different purposes and lead to very different conclusions. Recent attempts to compare the two modelling approaches illustrate the difficulty in reconciling their results. In this paper, both modelling techniques are described and discussed, and the gap between their results is explored.
In many ways, the mountain west (Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming) is an energy colony for the rest of the United States: it is rich in energy resources that are extracted to fuel economic growth in the wealthier and more populous coastal regions. Federal agencies and global corporations often behave as if the mountain west is a place to be exploited or managed for the benefit of customers and consumers elsewhere. Yet, the area. is not vast empty space with a limitless supply of natural resources, but rather a fast-growing region with a diverse economic base dependent on a limited supply of water. New decision processes and collaborations are slowly changing this situation,...
Energy, economics, and the environment are interdependent. Land, water, atmospheric, and biological resources #are being degraded by current high energy consumption. U.S. energy consumption is the highest in the world and the U.S. Department of Energy reports that the United States has only about 10 years of known and potentially 1,discoverable oil reserves. The U.S. should reduce its energy consumption by one half to help restore the quality of ithe environment while improving the American standard of living by strengthening the economy and increasing the Inumber of jobs. Because of the interdependence of energy, economics, and the environment, energy efficiency and 1:ransition to renewable energy sources are critical....