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Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.)-dominated habitats in the western United States have experienced extensive, rapid changes due to development of natural-gas fields, resulting in localized declines of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations. It is unclear whether population declines in natural-gas fields are caused by avoidance or demographic impacts, or the age classes that are most affected. Land and wildlife management agencies need information on how energy developments affect sage-grouse populations to ensure informed land-use decisions are made, effective mitigation measures are identified, and appropriate monitoring programs are implemented (Sawyer et al. 2006). We used information from radio-equipped...
Governmental policy options in response to increasing concern over an emerging greenhouse warming are reviewed. These will reflect differing levels of pofitical concem as understanding on the future size and impacts of the greenhouse effect evolves. High levels of concem will place emphasis on the option of limiting C02 emissions by restricting fossil fuel use. This option requires emphasis on energy efficiency and changes in energy supply, with increased use of natural gas, nuclear power or renewable energy sources. The progressive industrialization of the LDCs with the consequent growth in energy demand, may put additional pressure on developed countries to take action on this policy option.
This paper analyzes the co-benefits of transport sector electrification in terms of reductions of greenhouse gas and local environmental emissions, improvement in energy security and employment generation during 2015–2050 in the case of Nepal—a developing country with large hydropower potential. A bottom up energy system model of Nepal based on the MARKAL framework was developed to assess the effects of meeting a part of the land transport service demand through electrified mass transport system and electric vehicles. The present study shows that if the share of electricity based transport services is to grow from 10% in 2015 to 35% by 2050, the hydropower generation capacity would have to increase by 495 MW by...
Biogas and bio-methane that are based on energy crops are renewable energy carriers and therefore potentially contribute to climate protection. However, significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions resulting from agricultural production processes must be considered. Among those, the production and use of fertilizer, and the resulting leaching of nitrous oxide (N2O), are crucial factors. This article provides an integrated life cycle assessment (LCA) of biogas (i.e. bio-methane that has been upgraded and injected into the natural gas grid), taking into account the processes of fermentation, upgrading and injection to the grid for two different types of biogas plants. The analysis is based on different feedstocks from...
The primary supposition about renewable forms of energy is that use of such resources will not result in depletion or exhaustion. While it is true that natural energy flows such as sun and wind are not directly subject to degradation by use, there may still be indirect limitations on renewability. The exploitation of natural energy flows may require that systems of nonrenewable "support" resources be used to capture, store, and convert natural energy into useful forms. Poor resource management practices that degrade the support resources may therefore, in effect, endanger renewability. Biomass is an illustrative case of a renewable energy resource with nonrenewable support components. The soil and water management...
This paper analyzes the co-benefits of transport sector electrification in terms of reductions of greenhouse gas and local environmental emissions, improvement in energy security and employment generation during 2015–2050 in the case of Nepal—a developing country with large hydropower potential. A bottom up energy system model of Nepal based on the MARKAL framework was developed to assess the effects of meeting a part of the land transport service demand through electrified mass transport system and electric vehicles. The present study shows that if the share of electricity based transport services is to grow from 10% in 2015 to 35% by 2050, the hydropower generation capacity would have to increase by 495 MW by...
Understanding the sources and quantities of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is critical to developing an emissions inventory that accurately represents various oil and gas industry segment operations. To address this, the American Petroleum Institute (API) formed a Greenhouse Gas Emissions Methodology Working Group. The working group’s objectives were to review, summarize and recommend methodologies for consistent estimation of GHG emissions from oil and gas industry facilities, including exploration and production through refining to product marketing. In a continued pursuit of consistent emission estimation methodologies for the oil and gas industry, the working group is meeting with other protocol development...
One vital means of raising energy efficiency is to introduce district heating in industry. The aim of this paper is to study factors which promote and inhibit district heating collaborations between industries and utilities. The human factors involved showed to affect district heating collaborations more than anything else does. Particularly risk, imperfect and asymmetric information, credibility and trust, inertia and values are adequate variables when explaining the establishment or failure of industry-energy utility collaborations, while heterogeneity, access to capital and hidden costs appear to be of lower importance. A key conclusion from this study is that in an industry-energy utility collaboration, it is...
This paper reviews the case for alternative transport fuels in the context of greenhouse gas constraints. Fuel efficiency improvements and modal split shifts offer a potential to stabilize CO2 emissions from transportation. In the longer-term, however, alternative non-oil fuels will be needed to reduce emissions. Full fuel cycle CO2 emissions for various alternative transport fuels are presented. Carefully designed biofuel schemes, hydrogen and electric cars may be called upon to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; compressed natural gas and methanol are identified as transient fuels.
Governmental policy options in response to increasing concern over an emerging greenhouse warming are reviewed. These will reflect differing levels of pofitical concem as understanding on the future size and impacts of the greenhouse effect evolves. High levels of concem will place emphasis on the option of limiting C02 emissions by restricting fossil fuel use. This option requires emphasis on energy efficiency and changes in energy supply, with increased use of natural gas, nuclear power or renewable energy sources. The progressive industrialization of the LDCs with the consequent growth in energy demand, may put additional pressure on developed countries to take action on this policy option.
Governmental policy options in response to increasing concern over an emerging greenhouse warming are reviewed. These will reflect differing levels of pofitical concem as understanding on the future size and impacts of the greenhouse effect evolves. High levels of concem will place emphasis on the option of limiting C02 emissions by restricting fossil fuel use. This option requires emphasis on energy efficiency and changes in energy supply, with increased use of natural gas, nuclear power or renewable energy sources. The progressive industrialization of the LDCs with the consequent growth in energy demand, may put additional pressure on developed countries to take action on this policy option.
Global butter, concentrated milk, and milk powder products use approximately 15% of annual raw milk production. Similar to cheese and fluid milk, dairy processing of these products can be energy intensive. In this paper, we analyzed production and energy data compiled through extensive literature reviews on butter, concentrated milk, milk and whey powder processing across various countries and plants. Magnitudes of national final and primary specific energy consumption (SEC) exhibited large variations across dairy products; in addition, the final SEC of individual plants and products exhibited significant variations within a country and between countries. Furthermore, we quantified national energy intensity indicators...
Goodstein identified and discussed a "Saturday effect" in data on the timing of tanker oil spills. This comment describes two ways in which the validity of the statistical analysis used to identify and confirm this effect can be strengthened.
Understanding the sources and quantities of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is critical to developing an emissions inventory that accurately represents various oil and gas industry segment operations. To address this, the American Petroleum Institute (API) formed a Greenhouse Gas Emissions Methodology Working Group. The working group’s objectives were to review, summarize and recommend methodologies for consistent estimation of GHG emissions from oil and gas industry facilities, including exploration and production through refining to product marketing. In a continued pursuit of consistent emission estimation methodologies for the oil and gas industry, the working group is meeting with other protocol development...
Noise exposure is known to cause hearing loss and a variety of disturbances, such as annoyance, hypertension and loss of sleep. It is generally accepted that these situations are caused by the acoustical events processed by the auditory system. However, there are acoustical events that are not necessarily processed by the auditory system, but that nevertheless cause harm. Infrasound and low frequency noise (ILFN, <500Hz) are acoustical phenomena that can impact the human body causing irreversible organic damage to the organism, but that do not cause classical hearing impairment. Acoustical environments are normally composed of all types of acoustical events: those that are processed by the auditory system, and those...